exchange surfaces and breathing

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  • Created by: ginge1030
  • Created on: 07-04-15 13:22
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  • F211 Exchange surfaces and breathing
    • Lung tissue
      • Untitled
    • spirometer
      • used to investigate breathing
        • 1.oxygen filled chamber with a movable lid
        • 2.a person breaths in the tube connected to chamber
        • 3.the breathing in & out makes the lid move up & down
        • 4.movements are recorded = spirometer trace
        • 5.soda lime in the tube absorbs CO2 the person breaths out
      • how to test...
        • Vital capacity
          • asking the person to breath in & out as much as they can
        • tidal volume
          • asking a person to breath normally
        • Oxygen uptake
          • divide (the O2 (dm3)times 60) by the time taken in secs
        • Breathing rate
          • no. breath/ time (mins) = breaths/mins
    • Breathing & data
      • inspiration
        • 1.intercostal and diaphragm muscles contract.
        • 2.ribcage expands and diaphragm flattens
        • 3.volume of thorax increases (space where lungs are)
        • 4.lung pressure decreases below atm pressure.
        • 5.causes air to flow into lungs
        • 6.active process = needs energy (ATP)
      • Expiration
        • 1.intercostal muscles & diaphragm   relax
        • 2.ribcage shrinks and diaphragm curves
        • 3.volume of thorax decrease
        • 4.lung pressure increases above atm pressure
        • 5.air is forced out of the lungs
        • 6.passive process=no energy required
      • tldal volume
        • the volume of air in each breath
      • vital capacity
        • The largest volume of air moved into and out of lungs in any one breath
    • Gas Exchange
      • Surface area:volume
        • Multi-cellular
          • More supplies needed as there are more cells
            • cant exchange required amount fast enough via diffusion
              • too bigger distance to diffuse
          • small surface area:volume
            • cant exchange required amount fast enough via diffusion
              • too bigger distance to diffuse
        • single-celled
          • easier to exchange substances via diffusion
            • quicker diffusion rate
            • smaller distance to travel
          • large surface are:volume
      • exchange surfaces
        • Alveoli - Efficiency features
          • large surface area:volum
            • larger are for diffusion
          • one cell thick
            • small diffusion pathway
          • CO2
            • blood->alveoli
              • Alveoli = low CO2 conc
                • CO2 diffuses out of blood
          • O2
            • alveoli->blood
              • RBC's = low O2 conc
                • O2 diffuses into blood
            • diffuses out alveolar space
              • across alveolar epithelium
                • across capillary endothelium
                  • into RBC & combines with HB
                    • (Reverse for CO2)
        • adaption of lungs
          • Capillary
            • 1 cell thick
              • total barrier = 2cells/2um
            • squamous cells (flat & thin)
              • total barrier = 2cells/2um
          • alveoli
            • squamous cells (flat & thin)
              • lots of alveoli
              • 1 cell thick

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