Spoken Language Features

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  • Features of spoken language
    • Accent
      • A set of distinctive pronunciations that mark regional or social identity
    • Pragmatics
      • What the speaker means rather than just what they say
    • Sociolect
      • Social group lang
    • Non-standard grammar
      • We was doin duffink
    • Paralunguistic features
      • Gestures/facial expressions
    • Co-operative overlap
      • Tannen - women overlap to support
    • Utterance
      • Spoken sentence
    • Idiolect
      • Individual speaking style
    • Elission
      • 'gonna' 'gimme'
      • Joining to words together
    • Adjacency pairs
      • Question answer - greeting return greeting
    • Prosodic features
      • Sounds
      • Intonation/ rhythm/ stress
    • Active voice
      • The subject is also the actor
    • Dialect
      • Language variety
  • Features of planned speech
    • Similie
      • Comparison between words using 'like' or 'as'
    • Emotive language
      • Encourages the reader to act emotionall rather than rationally
    • Personification
      • Giving an object human qualities
    • Metaphor
      • Use of a term to describe something it does not denote to suggest similar qualities between the two
    • Rhetorical questions
      • A question not requiring an aswer
    • Analogy
      • Comparison between two text, which, if they work, will have similarities
    • Parallelism
      • the use of clauses, sentences or phrases with similar grammatical structures
    • Repetition
      • Repeated words or phrases
    • Tripling
      • Sets of three
    • Listing
      • Syndetic = 'and'
      • Asyndetic = no 'snd'
    • 1st/2nd person pronouns
    • Hyperbole
      • Exaggeration
    • Phonology
      • Alliteration = Repetition of the first letter
  • Features of spontaneous speech
    • Skip connectors
      • Returning to a previous topic
    • Back-channelling
      • Non-verbal utterances to show agreement or attention
    • Discourse markers
      • Signifying a shift of topic or conversation
    • Fillers
      • Non-verbal sounds acting as pauses
    • Hedging
      • Avoiding directness
    • Vague expressions
      • Deliberate non-communicative expression
    • Ellipsis
      • Omission of words
    • False starts
      • Beings speaking, pauses, then recommenses
    • Repairs
      • Returning to correct a previous mistake
    • Fixed expressions
      • A conventional/ routine expression in colloquial communication
    • Tag questions
      • Sing of speaker support or uncertainty or a request for clarification
    • Deixis
      • Pointing words in a perceptual, temporal or spatial dimention
    • Non-fluency features
      • Non-verbal occurrences
  • Emanuel Schegloff's theory of phone calls
    • 1. Summons/ answer - opning
      • 2. Identinification and/or recognition
        • 3. A greeting sequence - initiating shared space
          • 4. How are you sequences - strengthening shared space
    • Pre-closing sequences
      • Signaling they want to end the conversation
    • Metatalk
      • Talk drawing attention to the act of talking itself
    • Phatic speech
      • Small talk
    • Valedation
      • an item that acts as a farewell
  • Dialogue
    • Free direct speech
      • Direct speech accompanying exploration from the narrator
    • Indirect speech
      • Not quoted, an indication of what was said
    • Direct speech
      • Actual words are quoted
    • Free indirect speech
      • Not quoted, but is without narration, resembling direct speech
    • stylised Dialogue
      • Formal, grammatically complete. Often exaggerated for comedic effect
    • Naturalistic dialogue
      • Realistic and similar to spontaneous speech but is still scripted
      • Can have regional accents, non-fluency features or over-lapping speech
  • Passive voice
    • The subject is not the actor
    • Features of spoken language
      • Accent
        • A set of distinctive pronunciations that mark regional or social identity
      • Pragmatics
        • What the speaker means rather than just what they say
      • Sociolect
        • Social group lang
      • Non-standard grammar
        • We was doin duffink
      • Paralunguistic features
        • Gestures/facial expressions
      • Co-operative overlap
        • Tannen - women overlap to support
      • Utterance
        • Spoken sentence
      • Idiolect
        • Individual speaking style
      • Elission
        • 'gonna' 'gimme'
        • Joining to words together
      • Adjacency pairs
        • Question answer - greeting return greeting
      • Prosodic features
        • Sounds
        • Intonation/ rhythm/ stress
      • Active voice
        • The subject is also the actor
      • Dialect
        • Language variety

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