Sociology- Family

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  • Family
    • Socialisation
      • Identity-how we see ourselves and others
      • Non-socialised children
        • Kamala and Amala- found in 1920's India. Wolf children- walked on all fours, howled, slept curled up
        • Need physical care, ability to learn etc to become full members of society
          • If language learning starts too late -critical period missed. Can't develop fully
            • Kamala and Amala- found in 1920's India. Wolf children- walked on all fours, howled, slept curled up
      • Canalisation and manipulation
    • Functions
      • Functionalist view
        • Traditional nuclear family is deal for modern day living- makes most of men and women's natural abilities
        • Comfort/Support. "Warm bath"- washes away cares of outside world
      • 7 functions
        • The regulation of sex
        • Reproduction
          • CHANGE- Children out of wedlock
        • Physical care
          • CHANGE- Less dependent on relatives. Social security and child tax credits etc
          • CHANGE-NHS
        • Socialisation & social control
          • CHANGE- childcare  and education
        • Emotional Support
        • Economic support
        • A place in society
      • Criticisms
        • Feminists- benefits men. Increases their life expectancy + health. Gender inequalities
          • Oakley -1970's. Working class male dominated. MC more equal
          • Duncombe & Marsden (1995)Dual burden/triple shirt.
            • Part time trap
        • Marxists- benefits ruling class. Keeps families able to go out and make money for the ruling class
        • Doesn't function well.
          • Childless women
          • 12,500 children on child protection register
          • Children with mental disorders- lack of emotional care
    • Traditional family types
      • Nuclear
        • Traditional nuclear
          • Married parents. Different roles
          • Feminists criticise
            • Male dominated
            • Woman's role is unfulfilling
            • Dark  side
          • Murdock.
      • Extended
        • Gench, Gavron & Young (2006)- extended families in white communities now non-existent. Bangladeshi
      • Matrilocal
      • Traditional extended family
        • Thee generation matrilocal family- frequent face to face contact
        • Willmott & Young (1957)- East London. Matrilocal- help and advice and financial/physical support
          • Disappearing! Symmetrical family emerging. Change in community and work force. More privastised
      • Patriloal
      • Neolocal
    • Ch-ch-ch changes
      • Reasons for change
        • Divorce act 1971
          • Increase in divorce
        • Increase in divorce
        • Children being born out of wlock
        • Secularisation
      • Boomerang
      • Communal
        • Kibbutzim
      • Lone parent
        • 1/4 of all British families
        • -
          • Underacieving in school
          • More likely to be unemployed
          • Befetits
          • Delinquent and criminal
        • +
          • Supported by other family members
          • Can support selves- financially etc
          • Protect children from unhappy childhood
          • Bring up children well -drugs etc other reasons
        • Feminist- positive choice but some parents experience problems
        • The new right- critical. Boys suffer due to incorrect socialisaion
      • Reconsituted families
      • Serial monogamy
        • Divorce
          • About 40% of marriages end in divorce
          • Why increased?
            • Easier to get divorced
            • Change in attitude -led to more secular
            • Happiness put first. Changing expectations
            • Changing role of women. More freedom
            • isolation from a wider supportive family-lack of support
            • Lack of children-less to keep them together
            • Longer life expectancy
          • Rogers and Pryor (1998)
            • Short-term distress is common
            • Long term issues- poorer health, lack of achievement  bad behaviour but not for all kids
            • Child's age/gender do not affect the outcome
            • Amount of family conflict and quality of contact with parent does affect outcome
      • Divorce
        • About 40% of marriages end in divorce
        • Why increased?
          • Easier to get divorced
          • Change in attitude -led to more secular
          • Happiness put first. Changing expectations
          • Changing role of women. More freedom
          • isolation from a wider supportive family-lack of support
          • Lack of children-less to keep them together
          • Longer life expectancy
        • Rogers and Pryor (1998)
          • Short-term distress is common
          • Long term issues- poorer health, lack of achievement  bad behaviour but not for all kids
          • Child's age/gender do not affect the outcome
          • Amount of family conflict and quality of contact with parent does affect outcome
      • Cohabitation
        • Church weddings are expensive, formal and religious
          • Religion less influential
        • Feminists- women aware of exploitation
        • Preparation for marriage
        • Sue sharpe (2001) 11-16 year olds. Marriage not necessity
          • Awareness of divorce
        • Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi -low cohabitation and high marriage rates
        • NEW RIGHT- more risk of splitting up. marriage is more secure. Benefits society
      • Beanpole
        • Brannen (2003)
      • Gay & lesbian families- civil partnership act (2004)
    • Division of labour
      • Willmott and Young (1973)
        • Nuclear
        • Privatised
        • Symmetrical conjugal roles
      • Ann Oakley (1974)
        • Y and W findings were exaggerated
        • Women have more household responsibilities
        • Middle class- man more involved
    • Criticisms
      • Feminist
        • Oakley- see division of labour
        • Duncombe & Marsden (1995)
          • Dual burden and triple shift. Part time trap
        • Gershuny (1990's) Lagged adaptation
      • Dark Side
        • Leach (1967)  criticised nuclear family- to small to fulfill needs
        • Child abuse
        • Domestic abuse
          • Lockhurst (2003) Male victims largely hidden
          • Donovan (2007) 40% women 35% men in same sex couples experienced domestic abuse
  • Ch-ch-ch changes
    • Reasons for change
      • Divorce act 1971
        • Children being born out of wlock
        • Secularisation
      • Boomerang
      • Communal
        • Kibbutzim
      • Lone parent
        • 1/4 of all British families
        • -
          • Underacieving in school
          • More likely to be unemployed
          • Befetits
          • Delinquent and criminal
        • +
          • Supported by other family members
          • Can support selves- financially etc
          • Protect children from unhappy childhood
          • Bring up children well -drugs etc other reasons
        • Feminist- positive choice but some parents experience problems
        • The new right- critical. Boys suffer due to incorrect socialisaion
      • Reconsituted families
      • Serial monogamy
        • Cohabitation
          • Church weddings are expensive, formal and religious
            • Religion less influential
          • Feminists- women aware of exploitation
          • Preparation for marriage
          • Sue sharpe (2001) 11-16 year olds. Marriage not necessity
            • Awareness of divorce
          • Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi -low cohabitation and high marriage rates
          • NEW RIGHT- more risk of splitting up. marriage is more secure. Benefits society
        • Beanpole
          • Brannen (2003)
        • Gay & lesbian families- civil partnership act (2004)

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