The Fall of Cromwell

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  • Fall of Cromwell
    • Marriage to Anne of Cleves
      • Henry detested the sight of Anne of Cleaves and called her a "fat flanders mare."
        • He had only seen a painting of her by Holbein, which Cromwell requested. The painting had flattered her appearance and Henry was very disappointed.
          • He formed an alliance with the Duchy of Cleves. It would be sealed by the marriage of Anne to Henry.  henry was impressed by Holbein's painting of Anne and he agreed the marriage would have political advantages
            • When Anne arrived Henry was not impressed. He blamed Cromwell for 'forcing' him into the marriage, further encouraging the Duke of Norfolk to act against Cromwell.
      • The interlinking of Cromwell's domestic and foreign policies had run into problems by 1540... An attack by the Catholic Church on England encouraged him to seek an alliance.
        • He formed an alliance with the Duchy of Cleves. It would be sealed by the marriage of Anne to Henry.  henry was impressed by Holbein's painting of Anne and he agreed the marriage would have political advantages
          • When Anne arrived Henry was not impressed. He blamed Cromwell for 'forcing' him into the marriage, further encouraging the Duke of Norfolk to act against Cromwell.
    • Enemies of Cromwell
      • It was led by Gardiner and Howard, but also involved Bishop Tunstall, Lord Sandes and Sir Antony Browne
        • They collected information and made allegations that he had protected protestants in Calais  and that he he was unwilling to enforce the terms of the six articles.
    • Trial of John Lambert
      • 1538 - John Lambert was put on trial for denying the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist.
      • Henry found Lambert guilty and he was burnt at the stake. Cromwell appeared, however, to give Lambert the benefit of the doubt during the trail, further adding to the file of evidence the nobility was creating against him.
      • John Lambert was educated at Cambridge and had a reputation for turning out religious radicals
        • He got into trouble for reading forbidden books and preaching. He  was far too extreme for Henry's England and was executed in 1538
    • Six Articles
      • This religious settlement was more to Henry's liking
        • It confirmed transubstantiation, private masses and auricular confession
          • It banned clerical marriage and the taking of communion of both kinds of the laity. It also upheld the vows of the chastity the reaffirmed Catholic worship
      • 1539 - Showed Henry was more conservative then radical regarding his religious orientation. This put Cromwell in a difficult position as it allowed the conservative nobility to use Henry's religious orientation against him.
      • If people didn't comply with the six articles they could be imprisoned, their properties confiscated or killed for denying transubstatiation.
    • Accusations of Heresy
      • His fate was sealed when his support for a number of know heretics came to light
        • Lord Lisle stated that Cromwell had not enforced punishments for heretical behaviour in Calais.
          • Robert Barnes was a close friend of Cromwell and did a sermon on justification by faith alone & was sent to the tower. the Duke of Norfolk used this against Cromwell.
    • Overall reason
      • Robert Barnes was a close friend of Cromwell and did a sermon on justification by faith alone & was sent to the tower. the Duke of Norfolk used this against Cromwell.
      • Henry had many enemies who were ready to strike when he lost the trust of Henry.
        • The foreign situation had changed and France and the Empire were persecuting protestants.
        • Henry felt so isolated and wanted to make a show of conservatism so executed John Lambert.
          • Cromwell however wanted to form a protestant alliance with Germany.

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