Explanations of Gender Development

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  • Created by: _laurenb
  • Created on: 07-05-15 19:50
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  • Explanations of Gender Development
    • SLT Explanation
      • Reinforcement: rewarding or punishment
        • Fagot (supportive)
        • Dweck (supportive)
      • Imitation: copying behaviour
      • Identification: similarity to attractive person
      • Modelling: copying behaviouir or a model
        • Masters et al. (supportive)
        • Perry & Bussey (supportive)
      • ADV'S:- considers social influence - considers cognitive processes cross-cultural studies on variation  - much suportive evidence DISADV'S:- does not show gradual development - artifical studies to support  - disregards biology - cannot explain the emergence of new trends as it shows behaviour to be imitated - does not explain gender differences between siblings- does not explain why some view on gender are more rigid than others
    • Psychodynamic Explanation
      • Development during phallic stage (4-5 years); bisexual before
        • Oedipus complex for boys; Electra complex for girls
        • Little Hans (supportive) & Green (refuting)
        • DISADV'S:- Controverisal due to childhood sexuality - Gneder develops earlier than 4/5 years- evidence refutes (Green)- supportive evidence has no empirical support & did not include contact between Freud and the child - Freud claimed women were 'a great mystery' to him, not being happy with Electra Complex - Freud's work not considered relevant by psychologists
        • VARIATIONS: Horney; Erikson; Chodorow
    • Biological Explanation
      • Sex Chromosomes
        • Atypical sex chromosomes
          • Klienefelter's syndrome (XXY)men; underdeveloped genitals; lack body hair; infertile; poor language skills;  passive temperament
          • Turner's Syndrome(XO)women; ovaries don't develop; short, squat body; webbed neck; higher than average reading ability;  difficulty in social adjustment;low spatial ability
          • Imperto - McGinley (Batista Boys) & Money and Erhardt (Bruce)BOTH SUPPORTIVE
          • ADV'S: -supportive evidence DISADV'S- evidence from artificial studies unethical studies- McGinley study suggests environmental factors- Money study observer bias
      • Hormones
        • Oestrogen = PMS & PMT
          • Increased emotionality, anxiety & irritability
          • Golombuk & Fivush (refuting)
          • DISADV'S:- Unconvincing evidence - Influence of environmental factors -Arguement that gender is socially constructed, not biologicallyADV'S:- supportive evidence- used as a defence in court
        • Testosterone = aggression
          • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
          • Dabbs (supportive) & Tricker (refuting)
          • DISADV'S:-Cause or effect?- Hard to generalise from animals to humans-Environmental factors influence aggressiveness- Oversimplification of aggression- Self-fulfilling prophecyADV'S:- supportive evidence
    • Cognitive Explanation
      • Kohlberg's Cognitive Developmental Theory: age-related stages
        • 1. Gender identity2. Gender stability 3. Gender constancy
        • Slaby and  Frey & Damon (both supportive)
        • ADV'S:- applies to many cultures- supportive evidenceDISADV'S:- describes but does not explain- gender schema proves that children develop before or after the ages stated for each stage
      • Gender Schema Theory
        • 1. children associate things with each sex 2. children make links between components 3. children link components to each sex
        • Boston & Levy (supportive)
        • ADV'S:- related to real life- supportive evidence- explains why children copy behaviour appropriate to their gender- 'the most influential approach to understanding gender' DISADV'S:- ignores social influence - does not explain a males extreme gender-stereotyped behaviour compared to females- development occurs earlier in some cases


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