eukaryotic cells and organelles

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  • eukaryotic cells and organelles
    • has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles (except ribosomes)
    • in complex organisms they become specialised for specific functions
    • vacuole (plants) - fluid filled sac that contains sugars/ amino acids
    • lysosomes - contains lysozymes
      • hydrolyse material ingested by phagocytic cells
      • release enzymes to the outside of cell (exocytosis)
      • digest worn out chemicals
      • enzymes which hydrolyse the cell wall of certain bacteria
    • golgi apparatus - modifies and transports molecules
      • adds carbohydrates to proteins to form glycoprotiens
      • produces secretary enzymes
      • forms lysosomes
    • mitochondria - site of aerobic respiration
      • the space in the middle is the matrix
      • the folds are the cristae
    • chloroplasts (plants and algae) - site of photosynthesis
      • thylakoid contains chlorophyl
      • stroma is the fluid that surrounds everything
    • cells wall ( in plants and algae) - provides strength (microfibrils) and stopes cell from bursting


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