A2 English Language- Ethincity

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  • Created by: ChloeL98
  • Created on: 06-02-16 09:27
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  • Ethnicity and Lanuage
    • Key Terms
      • Argot
        • The particular jargon or slang-based language variety used by a social group
      • Creolisation
        • The creation of a new language variety by language contact and new speakers growing up using it
        • Process of Creolisation:
          • Pidgin: less grammatical; used in specific contexts; no native speakers (new variation)
            • Pidgin- Creole transition: pidgin (new variation) more established, used by 2nd generation native speakers (younger speakers); lexis and grammar more developed
              • Creole: variety used more by ongoing generations, variation is now recognisable and similar to the source language (pidgin)
      • Language Contact
        • Where speakers of different languages interact with one another, often resulting in some form of exchange or blending of the languages
      • Pidgin
        • A simplified language form created as a result of language contact, usually to support some sort of activity like trade
      • Creole
        • A language variety created by previous language contact and then developed over generations of users
      • Code Switching
        • The ability of a speaker to switch between different language varieties in their language use
    • Linguistic impacts of Language Variation
      • Phonological
        • Pronunciation differences, such as the glottal stop "bu'er" and the shortening of vowel sounds
      • Lexical
        • New or alternative words will appear from the ethnic/cultural language alongside the main source language
      • Semantic
        • Pejoration and amelioration of word meanings will occur
          • Pejoration: Meaning of word word becomes negative over time
          • Amelioration: Meaning of word becomes positive over time
      • Grammatical
        • Non-standard grammar such as the omission of parts of a verb phrase and non-standard syntax patterns (e.g.  double negation or unusual word order) may appear
          • Syntax: The arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language.
      • Orthographical
        • Non-standard spellings will appear as varieties are represented in the written mode
    • Theorists
      • Mark Sebba (1993) - London Jamacian
        • Made up of the phonological, lexical and grammatical features of:
          • London English (Cockney)
          • Standard English/RP
          • Jamaican/ Caribbean
        • Is a variety of English that evolved from the contact made between Caribbean communities and English
        • Sebba idenified that this variety is popular amoung young, new-generation speakers born in London's Caribbean communities
      • Sue Fox (2005) - Multicultural London English (MLE)
        • Fox's research focused on the dialect of youths from a variety of diverse ethnic backgrounds
          • Included: Caribbean, South Asian, West African, Cockney and some Polish communities too
        • Her findings suggest that there is a emergence of a commonly spoken variety - Multi-Ethnic Youth Dialect (MEYD)
          • Combination of several native sources (English, West Indian, West African and Bangladeshi)
          • Examples: 'Blud'= mate or friend and 'Nang'= good
        • Spoken by by youths from white, black, Asian Communities.
          • This maybe because they share a similar socio-economic background and the same interests (music/media etc) and sub-cultures so they wan to close the gap (converge) to share an identity
      • Labov (1966)- Overt and Covert Prestige
        • Covert Prestige
          • A form of status shared by minority groups in society. Usually have alternative/ opposing views to mainstream society (e.g. MLE- Non-standard)
          • Unobvious
        • Overt Prestige
          • A form of status given to a language variety valued and shared by mainstream society and culture (e.g. Standard English/RP)
          • Obvious
        • NOTE: Minority groups try to adopt the prestige variety; while  dominant groups adopt the opposite variety in order to fit in
      • Roger Hewitt (1982+1986)
        • He studied the relations between 70 (13 -17) black and white adolescents (specifically Afro-Caribbean) in an urban environment (South London)
        • His research indicated that there was a strong link between language use and ethnic identity for the 2nd British-born generation of Caribbean-by-descendants
        • Evidence
          • Cultural Showcasing: White youths using creole forms with other whites, similar to black vernacular showboating (showing off)
          • Private Arrangements: Close friendships permitting sociolingustics violation of norms of black-white interaction
      • Viv Edwards (1979+1986)
        • What she found
          • Creole speaking students were singled out by the teacher (had negative attitude towards non-standard form)
          • Similar to Hewitt found an emergence of creole based lang variety (London Jamaican)
            • Ethnicity alone is not sufficient to explain language use.
              • Complex relationships between identity, culture, age, education, social class and socio-economic factors determine lang use
        • Studied
          • Also, researched creole lang use in a wider social+cultural context (16-23 year olds in West-Midlands
          • Focused on 2nd gen of African- Caribbean that emerged by the late 1970s, who had been born or spent early years in  Britain
        • Evidence
          • She saw first hand "the teacher is not prepared to recgonised the problems of a croele speaking child in a... English situation"
          • In formal interviews the majority tended to see this as the most 'English Situation' so would put on Patois in those group conversations
    • Hinglish
      • What occurs when standard English meets the South Asian languages
        • Hindi, Urdu or Punjabi
  • Language Contact
    • Where speakers of different languages interact with one another, often resulting in some form of exchange or blending of the languages





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