Ethiopian Music

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  • Ethiopian Music
    • Geography
      • Smale scale subsistence agriculture. (Big famine of 1984)
      • Population is over 90 million
      • 1 Million Km squared
      • Religion
        • Christian Orthodox 43.5%
        • Muslim  33.9%
        • Protestant 18.6%
        • Traditional  2.6%
        • Christian Orthodox since 332 A.D.
      • Politics
        • Only African  country to resist colonisation
    • Amharic Highlands music
      • Ancient system of notation for sacred music (Melekket - Late 16th Century)
      • Texture
        • Monophonic and Heterophonic
      • Style
        • Vocally Melismatic
        • Qeñet system: four main pentatonic “modes” or tuning systems 
        • Qeñet system:
          • Four main qeñet: Tezeta, Bati, Anchihoy, Ambassel 
          • Each qeñet is characterised by a set of five intervals (they are not ‘scales’, but pentatonic ‘modes’) 
          • Intervals are fixed, while pitch is not 
          • Each qeñet has a central/most recurring note, called melash 
          • Normally, the qeñet doesn’t change within a song 
          • When sung, or when played on indigenous instruments, pitches and intervals are not tempered 
      • Rhythm
        • Ternary meters particularly common 
      • Liturgical Instruments
        • S'enas'el (Tsenatsil) sistrum rattle 
        • Kebero double-headed barrel drum 
      • Instruments
        • Embilta set of end-blown reed flutes played in ensemble 
        • Washint end-blown flute played solo 
        • Baganna 
          • 10 string lyre with box-shaped resonator 
          • Aristocratic instrument, played by clerics and the nobility 
        • Krar 
          • 5 or 6 stringed lyre with bowl shaped resonator
          • Association with Devil due to its function as an accompaniment of songs praising love and beauty
          • Played by azmaris
      • The Azmari
        • the secular musicians of Ethiopian traditional music. 
        • solo musicians who sing accompanying themselves with the masinqo or the krar (modern azmari also use accordion). 
        • Untitled
        • Traditionally, azmari were roving musicians (not unlike European minstrels or to the Mande griots). 
  • Geography
    • Smale scale subsistence agriculture. (Big famine of 1984)
    • Population is over 90 million
    • 1 Million Km squared
    • Religion
      • Christian Orthodox 43.5%
      • Muslim  33.9%
      • Protestant 18.6%
      • Traditional  2.6%
      • Christian Orthodox since 332 A.D.
    • Politics
      • Only African  country to resist colonisation

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