Chemistry AS ES CI 15.1 - 15.7

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  • Created by: A.B.
  • Created on: 19-02-14 13:34
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  • ES Greener Industry CI 15.1 - 15.7
    • Batch process or continuous process?
      • A chemical plant is the name given to a place where chemicals are manufactured.
        • 1. Feedstock
          • 2. Feedstock preparation
            • 3. Reaction
              • 4. Separation
                • 5. Products
                • 5. Co-products
                • Recycle loop
                  • 3. Reaction
                    • 4. Separation
                      • 5. Products
                      • 5. Co-products
                      • Recycle loop
        • BATCH = reactants placed in reaction vessel and allowed to react. Once over, products are removed and vessel is cleaned and new batch started.
          • ADVANTAGES
            • cost effective of small quantities
            • low capital costs for plant
            • different products can be made using the same vessel
            • filling, emptying and cleaning reaction vessel is time consuming
            • May require larger workforce
            • Contamination possible if making different products
        • CONTINUOUS = reactants regularly fed into one end and product emerges at other
          • ADVANTAGES
            • suited to high-tonnage products
            • can operate for months at a time without a shut-down
            • more easily automated, so workforce can be smaller
            • less flexible - usually designed to make one product
            • Much higher capital costs in building the plant
            • Not cost effective if run below full capacity
      • Raw Materials
        • Materials that feedstocks are prepared from
        • co products are produced at the same time as the desired product via the same reaction, can be sold to generate further profits for the manufacturer.
        • by products - result of unwanted side reactions
      • Costs and efficiency
        • Fixed costs are the same irrespective of how much product is made
        • Variable costs depend on the amount of product manufactured
        • Efficiency of a chemical process depends on conditions and recycling
      • Health and Safety
      • Plant location
        • A good transport network
        • Labour (near existing ones because of the availability of skilled labour)
        • Shared facilities (product from one plant may be the feedstock for another)
        • Cheap energy
        • Water
      • Waste disposal
        • Chemical waste must be treated
      • Percentage yield and atom economy


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