Erosional coastline: Holderness

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  • Erosional coastline: Holderness
    • Problem
      • Made of soft material called boulder clay
        • Sand and clay deposited during ice age
      • Frequently attacked by strong winds-causing cliffs to erode
      • 4km gone since Roman times
      • 1.2m a year-highest in Europe
    • Causes
      • Wind
        • Waves cross a long fetch which increases wave energy for erosion
        • Problems protecting 50km coastline
      • Strong waves
        • Caused by strong winds blowing across North sea
        • Destructive power may be increasing due to global warming
        • Main source of erosion is hydraulic power and abrasion
      • Eroded material
        • Fine clay which is mostly carried out to sea
        • 1.5 million tonnes of clay carried out each year to sea
          • Rest of eroded material is a type of heavier sand which eventually settles to form a thin beach
            • Constantly moving south at a rate of about 0.5 million tonnes per year
          • Constantly moving south at a rate of about 0.5 million tonnes per year
    • Effects
      • North Sea gas terminal under threat
      • Towns, farms, roads, caravan sites under threat
    • Managment
      • Wave resistant structures
        • Sea walls
        • Revetments
      • Groynes
        • Trap beach material
      • Colliery waste
        • Dumped 50km off coast
        • Series of banks designed to refract waves
          • Dumped 50km off coast
      • Tyres
        • Bank of 1.5 million tyres are submerged
    • Has management worked?
      • Mappleton erosion has increased by 10m a year
        • Due to southward movement of protective sand being blocked
      • Study at Hull Univeristy recommened no further intervention
      • Some more villages have been protected by sea walls

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