Energy from respiration - B2

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  • Energy From Respiration
    • Aerobic Respiration
      • Aerobic respiration is the release of energy from food when oxygen is available
      • Most of the reactions for aerobic respiration take place in mitochondria
        • Controlled by enzymes
      • Equation for aerobic respiration
        • Glucose + oxygen - CO2 + water (+energy)
      • Energy used for:
        • Building larger molecules from smaller ones
        • Enabling muscle contraction in animals
        • Maintaining a constant body temperature
        • Building sugars, nitrates and other nutrients into amino acids and then proteins in plants
      • Rate of respiration can be measured by measuring the rise in temperature or the amount of carbon dioxide being produced
    • The Effect of Exercise on the Body
      • During exercise, muscles need more energy
      • More glucose and oxygen need to be transported to the muscles
        • This causes:
          • Change in heart rate
            • blood vessels dilate (widen) allowing more blood containing oxygen + glucose
          • Change in breathing
            • depth of breath increases allowing greater intake and release of gases
          • Change in blood supply to the muscle cells
            • blood vessels dilate (widen) allowing more blood containing oxygen + glucose
      • You need to remove waste carbon dioxide more quickly
      • Muscles store glucose as glycogen
        • This is converted back to glucose
    • Anaerobic Respiration
      • When muscles work hard for a long time they may have too little oxygen and get fatigued
      • Muscles use anaerobic respiration when they're short of oxygen
      • When muscles respire anaerobically they build up an oxygen dept
      • Glucose is not broken down completely, making lactic acid instead of CO2 + water
        • this can cause muscle fatigue
        • blood flowing through muscles removes the acid
      • Less energy released from glucose
      • Oxygen Debt
        • For the lactic acid to be broken down, you need a supply of oxygen
        • the oxygen oxidises the acid into CO2 + water
        • The extra oxygen need to break down the acid is the oxygen debt
        • The fitter you are, the quicker you can burn of the acid

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