Energy and food production

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Energy and Food production
    • Fertilisers
      • Inorganic
        • Contain macro nutrients (N,P,K) and micro nutrients (Fe, Mg, S)
        • Exact composition of ions for max growth
        • Concentrated so applied in smaller amounts
        • Easy and cean to apply
        • Leaching problems
        • Does not improve soil structure
        • Costly to produce
      • Organic
        • Ions released slowly giving steady supply over long period
        • Natural waste materials e.g. manure
        • Bulky and must apply in large amounts
        • Difficult to spread
        • Ions released slowly so less leaching
        • Improve soil structure
        • Cheap
      • Nitrogen for amino acids, DNA.
      • Phosphorous for ATP, DNA,RNA, phospholipid bilayer
      • Potassium for k pumps, protein synthesis, enzyme activator
      • Iron and magnesium for chlorophyll production
      • Sulphur for protein production
    • Environmental impact of fertilisers
      • Leaching
      • Eutrophication
        • Algal bloom
          • Algae block light
            • Plants underwater can't photosynthesis so die
              • Algae dies
                • Increase in decomposes that respire aerobically
                  • Deplete O in water so other organism cannot respire and die
      • Reduce biodiversity
    • Pesticides
      • Contact- applied directly to plant and absorbed via stoma or o insects via spiracles
        • Some may avoid contact
      • Systematic- taken in by leaves transported around plant, insect eats plant and pesticide transported around insect
        • Kills all parts
      • Residual- Sprayed on soil and kills weed seedlings or insect eggs
      • Should be cost effective, biodegradable, specific, should not accumulate
    • Biological control
      • Use a natural predator of pest called a control agent
      • Reduces pest to below harmful levls
      • No use of pesticide so it can't enter food chain, less environmental damage, pests don't develop resistance, predator not killed by pesticide
      • Control agent may become pest, may disperse, may have to keep reintroducuing
    • Intensive rearing of domestic liveestock
      • Restricted movement- less respiratory loss due to muscle movement
      • Keeping animals indoor- control temp so less heat loss
      • Fed optimum nutrition so more nutrients absorbed
      • Predators excluded
      • Selective breeding- the most efficient at converting energy to biomass
      • Slaughtered when growing
    • Pests
      • Organisms that decrease the yield of a crop directly or indirectly
        • Direct- eating part of crop humans use
        • Indirectly- Eating leaves so less surface area for photosynthesis
      • Weeds
        • Compete for light nutrients space, interspecific competition
      • Insects
        • Feed on leaves and reduce surface area for photosynthesis
          • Eat part used by humans
      • Fungi
        • Spread diseases
  • Organic
    • Ions released slowly giving steady supply over long period
    • Natural waste materials e.g. manure
    • Bulky and must apply in large amounts
    • Difficult to spread
    • Ions released slowly so less leaching
    • Improve soil structure
    • Cheap

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Ecology, ecosystems and environmental biology resources »