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  • ENDOtherms:
    • Endotherms use INTERNAL sources of heat to maintain the body temperature. They can INCREASE RESPIRATION rate to release heat and stay warm.
    • Advantages of being an endotherm:
      • Maintain a fairly CONSTANT body temperature regardless of external temperature.
      • Activity is possible when external temperatures are COOL e.g. night and winter.
      • Ability to INHABIT COLDER parts of the planet.
    • Disadvantages of being an endotherm:
      • A LOT of energy intake is used to maintain body TEMPERATURE in the cold.
      • MORE food is required in order to grow.
      • LESS energy is used for growth.
    • PHYSIOLOGICAL mechanisms to maintain body temperature:
      • SWEAT GLANDS - If too HIGH, secrete MORE sweat to be evaporated. If too LOW, secrete LESS sweat, LESS evaporation.
      • LUNGS, MOUTH, NOSE - If too HIGH, PANTING to INCREASE evaporation. If too LOW, NO panting, so LESS evaporation.
      • HAIRS on skin - If too HIGH, hairs lie FLAT, LITTLE insulation, MORE heat LOST. If too LOW, hairs RAISED to TRAP HEAT.
      • ARTERIOLES - If too HIGH, VASODILATION, MORE blood near surface. If too LOW, VASOCONSTRICTION to REDUCE blood flow near skin.
      • LIVER cells - If too HIGH, METABOLIC rate REDUCES, LESS heat generated. If too LOW, METABOLIC rate INCREASES, MORE heat generated.
      • SKELETAL muscles  If too HIGH, NO spontaneous CONTRACTIONS, if too LOW, spontaneous CONTRACTIONS e.g. shivering to generate MORE heat.
    • BEHAVIOURAL mechanisms to maintain body temperature:
      • Too HOT:
        • Move into SHADE/ hide in burrow.
        • Orientate body to DECREASE SA exposed to sun.
        • Remain INACTIVE + spread out limbs to INCREASE SA.
      • Too COLD:
        • Move INTO sunlight.
        • Orientate body to INCREASE SA exposed to sun.
        • MOVE about to generate HEAT in muscles.


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