- Elements of a study that makes it Scientific
- Reductionism:it is hard to study complex areas in a measurable way, so small parts of the area are studies
- Paradigm: Scientific study works within overall theories or paradigms because hypotheses are derived from accepted theory.
- Hypothesis testing: a statement of what is made to test it against reality
- Objectivity: Subjectivity is a bias and science must avoid bias
- Quantitative data: quantitative data are often about individuals and are hard to generalise from.
- Cause and Effect: if only the IV varies and the DV's change is measured, and all else stays the same, then the IV change is said to cause the DV
- Controls: only the variables in the hypothesis (IV and DV) can vary; all other variables have to be controlled.