Electrical xircuits

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  • Electrical charge and current
    • Direct current
      • Flow of electrons consistently in one direction
        • electrons are negatively charged particles
          • Transfer energy through wires as electricity
    • Alternating current
      • direction of electron flow continually reverses
    • Current
      • Q=I(times)T
        • How much charge has moved if a current of 13 A flows for 10 s?
          • Q=13 (times) 10
            • 130C
      • Current in a series circuit
    • Potential difference
      • a measure of how much energy is transferred between two points in a circuit
      • to measure the potential difference a voltmeter must be placed in parallel
      • also known as voltage (measured in volts
      • potential difference=energy divided by change
      • Potential difference= current (times) resistance
        • V=I (times) R
    • Resistance
      • What is the potential difference if a current of 2A flows through a resistance of 40 ohms
        • V=I(times)R
          • V=2(times)40
            • V=80V
    • Series Circuit
      • an electron will pass through every component on its way round a circuit
        • if a bulb is broken the current can't flow through a circuit. If one bulb is out they all go out
      • I1+I2=I3
      • Potential difference in a series circuit
        • the current transfers energy from the power supply to the components
          • all the source energy is shared between components
          • potential difference measures changes in energy
    • Parallel Circuit
      • electrical components are connected alongside one another forming extra loops
        • Since there are multiple loops, the current will split as it leaves the cell
          • If multiple ammeters are placed in different parts of the circuit it will show where the current splits
        • I1=I2+I4=I3
      • an electron will not pass through every component in a parallel circuit
        • If one bulb is broken then the current will still be able to flow through the other loop of the parallel circuit


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