Educational Policies

  • Created by: KCharlish
  • Created on: 20-05-15 21:37
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  • Educational Policy
    • Butler Act (1944)
      • 3 types of schools identified by 11+
        • Grammar Schools: offered an academic curriculum and access to non manual jobs. Mainly m/c with academic ability who passed 11+
        • Secondary Modern: non academic, practical work. Access to manual work for those who failed 11+ mainly w/c
        • Technical Schools
      • Legitimated Inequality - belief that ability is inborn rather than a product of upbringing.
      • Reproduced inequality - by channelling the 2 social classes into 2 different types of school that offered unequal oppurtunities.
        • Girls also had to score higher on the 11+ to gain a place at grammar school
    • Comprehensive (1965)
      • aim to overcome class divide produced by the tripartite system, and make schools more meritocratic and abolish grammar schools
      • Continued to reproduce inequality
        • Streaming: middle class were usually placed into high streams. Working class usually placed in the lower streams and this can lead to self fulfilling prophecy
        • Labelling: teachers may continue to label the w/c negatively
        • Myth of Meritocracy - made it appear they had equal opportunities regardless of class background
        • Grammar schools still exist - 164 remain in England
    • New Labour (1997)
      • Education Action Zones - provide deprived areas with additional resources
      • Aim Higher Programme - raise aspirations of groups who are under represented in education
      • Education Maintenance Allowance - payments to students from low income families to encourage them to stay onto higher education
      • Proposal for poor schools to be made into academias to raise achievement
      • Proposal for schools to apply for specialist status; offers greater choice and allows school to build on their strengths
        • 59.5% of pupils from specialist schools got 5 A*-C grades at GCSE
        • 47.6% pupils from non specialist schools got 5 A*-C at GCSE
      • Whittey (2002) EMA's encourage pupils to stay on until 18 however tuition fees may deter them from universities, therefore Labours' policies are 'cosmetic'
    • Marketisation and Parentocracy
      • Publication of league tables and OFSTED reports
      • 1988 Education Reform Act introduced by Conservative government created an education market
      • Open Enrolment - successful schools recruit more pupils
      • Business sponsership of schools
      • Formula Funding - allocated funds based on how many pupils they attracr
      • Reproduces Inequality
        • Formula Funding - popular schools get more funds and can afford better qualified teachers and better facilities. They attract more ambitious middle class students. Unpopular schools lose income and find it difficult to match their teacher skills to competitors. They fail to attract students and their funding is reduced
        • Exam League Tables - parents are attracted to high league table rankings. Schools recruit high achieving m/c pupils. Poor schools with low league table rankings have to take less able w/c pupils and therefore their results remain poor.


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