Economic and social changes 1928- 39

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  • Economic and social changes 1928- 39
    • Five year plans
      • First
        • Reorganize and modernize soviet industry and agriculture
          • In order to compete with the west
        • Began October 1928
        • Create a command economy in each factory
          • Work to set targets by gosplan
        • Concentrated on quantity not quality
        • Production to be doubled
        • On heavy industry
      • Second
        • Mistakes of the first (high targets) were avoided
        • Fear of invasion from the west increased
      • Third
        • Launched in 1938
          • Abandoned when Germany invaded in June 1941
        • Concentrated on household goods and luxuries
    • Stakhanovites
      • Record set by Alexei Stakhanov- dug 102 tonnes of coal in one shift
      • Around 250,000 volunteers went to work in industrial plants every summer
      • Used as propaganda- show it can be done
    • Industries developed
      • engineering, electrical power, tractors, iron, steel, chemicals, coal and oil
      • Many of the figured were faked
    • What went wrong?
      • Targets increased- unrealistic
      • People became disillusioned
      • Cut a year short
      • Transforming peasants  into industry workers led to strict regulations being introduced in 1931
      • No criticism accepted
    • Why?
      • Fear of invasion
        • build and control armed forces
        • Diplomatic isolation
        • ensure victory
      • Leadership
        • Consolidate Stalin's position
        • Remove other leading figures
      • Political reasons
        • Create a strong state built on communist principles
        • Replace Nepmen (hated)
      • Poor economy
        • despite NEP production remained disappointing
        • Outstrip the developed nations
    • Collectivisation
      • Part of five year plans
      • Solvkhozy
        • State farm
        • Land owned by the state
      • Kolkhoz
        • Groups of peasant families make up one farm
      • Remove of the ownership of land by ordinary people
    • Working and living conditions
      • Crime, alcoholism + juvenile delinquency increased
      • Harsh living and working conditions
      • Prisoners in gulags
      • Poorly paid
        • Wages fell by 50%
      • Millions died
    • De-kulakisation
      • Kulaks- better off peasants who had benefitted from Lenin's NEP
      • Sent in dekulakisation squads
      • Round up opponents of his policies
      • Roughly 10 million people were deported in the war against the Kulaks

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