Echinoids

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  • Echinoids
    • Echinodermata, Echinoidea
    • Regular
      • Mode of life
        • Benthonic, epifaunal, Vagrant, High energy conditions
        • Graze on algae living on the rocky substrate and scavenging food particles
      • Five fold radial symmetry
      • No Facioles
    • Irregular
      • Morphology
        • Aboral View
          • Interambulacral area
            • Interambulacral plate
              • Lacking Tubercles
          • Anterior Groove
            • Helps to direct food towards the organisms mouth. Lined with cilia to direct currents.
          • Petaloid ambulacra
            • Ambulacral plate
              • Each has a pore pair
        • Oral View
          • Labrum
            • Lip protruding over the mouth. Prevents sediment moving into the mouth
          • Fascioles
            • a band of minute tubercles bearing modified commonly ciliated spines which direct water to the mouth, and waste away from the organism
          • Plastron
            • Area covered with tubercles
            • Tubercles
              • For spine attachment, allows organism to dig burrows
      • Mode of life
        • Benthonic, infaunal, vagrant. Low energy  conditions
        • Particle feeds, extracts microorganisms from sea water
      • Bilateral symmetry
      • Two Fascioles
      • Ambulacra run to the aboral surface, forming petaloid shapes
      • Interambulacra fused together over oral surface. also form the plastron
      • Tube feet used for respiration, digging, maintaining the burrow and anal tube
    • Cambrian to recent
      • Extant
  • Morphology
    • Oral View
      • Aristotle's lantern
        • marks position of mouth, made up of 5 chisel like teeth
    • Test
      • Ambulacral area
        • Ambulacral plate
          • Pore Pair
            • Tube feet
              • soft tissue which extend out through the pore pairs. Used for respiration, attachment and movement
      • Interambulacral area
        • Interambulacral plate
          • Tubercle
            • Boss
              • Wide base of the tubercle, for muscle attachment
            • Muscle
              • Attaches spine to the tubercle. Allows independent rotation of the spine
            • Mamelon
              • centre of the tubercle. Point of articulation for the spine
            • Spine
              • Made of calcium carbonate. Used for movement and defence
    • Regular
      • Mode of life
        • Benthonic, epifaunal, Vagrant, High energy conditions
        • Graze on algae living on the rocky substrate and scavenging food particles
      • Five fold radial symmetry
      • No Facioles
    • Aboral View
      • Genital plate
        • releases sperm and eggs into the water column

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