Earth and Space Science

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  • Earth and Space Science
    • Earth
      • Layers of the Earth
        • Outer Core
        • Crust 5 - 60km thick, average thickness of 15km and average surface temperature of 20 C
        • Inner core 5000 C
        • Mantle 2nd layer of the earth
    • Rocks
      • Igneous - Igneous rocks are strong, hard and made of interlocking crystals
        • Uses - Some igneous rocks are used in building
          • Igneous rocks form when magma or lava cools enough that it solidifies
            • Extrusive igneous rocks are rocks formed when lava cools above ground while intrusive igneous rocks are formed when magma cools and solidifies underground the slower the rock cools, the larger the crystals formed
              • 2 Examples of igneous rocks are Pumice and obsidian
      • Metamorphic - Metamorphic rocks are usually foliated (have layered bands) and are hard.
        • Metamorphic rocks are formed when igneous or sedimentary rocks are subjected to extreme heat and pressure.
          • 2 Examples of metamorphic rocks are gneiss and marble
      • Sedimentary - Sedimentary rocks are usually layered, usually contain fossils and are easily weathered.
        • Sedimentary rocks are usually formed when sediment is cemented and compacted over millions of years.
          • Weathering is the natural process of which rocks break down.
            • Erosion is the removal of sediments from an area
              • Deposition is the process in which sediments are added to a landform or a land mass.
                • 2 Examples of sedimentary rocks are sandstone and shale
      • Rock Cycle
      • WA Ores
        • Gold, galena, bauxite, haematite and azurite
      • Rocks are a collection of different minerals.
        • Tests for minerals include the Streak test, where a rock is scratched against a unglazed marble tile, hardeness where a rock is scratched against glass and lustre, where a rock is examined to determine if the rock has a metallic or non metallic lustre.


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