EARLY OPPOSITION

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  • EARLY OPPOSITION
    • Liberal Opposition
      • WESTERNISERS
        • Wanted Russia to catch up with the West.
        • Thought Russia should abandon Slavic traditions and adopt modern western values.
        • Wanted reforms to 'civilise' society.
          • Representative assemblies
          • Reduction in the authority of the Orthodox church.
          • Establishing civil liberties.
      • SALVOPHILES
        • Favoured a superior 'Russian' path for a better future.
        • Believed Russia had a unique culture and heritage centred on the prevailing peasant society and the principles of the Orthodox Church.
          • Believed this should be preserved as the country modernised,
      • ZEMSTVA
        • Provided a natural home for westernising liberal opinions.
        • Hope was to reform autocracy, so the Tsar would listen to and rule in conjunction with his subjects.
          • Alexander II not willing to give the Zemstva national influence.
    • Radical Opposition
      • RADICAL THINKERS
        • NIKOLAI CHERNYSHEVESKY
          • 'What is to be done?'
            • suggested peasants had to be made revolutionary leaders of the land,
            • 1862
        • MIKHAIL BAKUNIN
          • Put forward the view that private ownership of land should be replaced by collective ownership.
          • Helped introduce Marxism into Russia.
            • Translated 'The Communist Manifesto' into Russian.
              • 1869
            • Das Kapital was then published in Russian.
              • 1872
      • THE TCHAIKOVSKY CIRCLE
        • Set up in St Petersburg.
          • 1868-69
        • Primarily a literary society.
          • Organised the printing, publishing and distribution of scientific and revolutionary literature.
            • First volume of Das Kapital.
              • Das Kapital was then published in Russian.
                • 1872
        • Few members - approx. 100.
    • Populism
      • PYTOTR LAVROV
        • 1874
        • Encouraged a group of approx. 2000 young men and women, mainly from the nobility and intelligentsia, to travel to the countryside in order to persuade the peasantry that the future of Russia depended on the development of the peasant commune.
        • Aimed to exploit the resentment felt since the Emancipation.
      • NARODNIKS
        • Tried dressing and talking like peasants.
        • Hope was shattered by peasant hostility.
          • Peasants had deep-rooted loyalty to the Tsar.
        • Around 1'600 were arrested.
      • LAND AND LIBERTY
        • 1877
        • Members sought to work within the peasant communes as doctors, teachers or workmen,
        • Some carried out political assassinations.
          • General Mezemstev - head of the Third Section.
            • 1878
        • Split in 1879.
          • THE BLACK PARTITION
            • Organised from St Petersburg by Georgi Plekhanov.
            • Wanted to share the black soil provinces of Russia among the peasants.
            • Worked peacefully among the peasantry - published radical materials in hope to stimulate change without resorting to violence.
            • 1880 - 81 arrests severely weakened.
          • THE PEOPLE'S WILL
            • Led by Aleksandr Mikhailov
              • Successfully planted a spy in the Third Section/
            • BIgger than the Black Partition.
            • Advocated violent methods.
            • Assassinated the Tsar in 1881.

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