PSYA3 Drisruption

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  • Disruption
    • Shiftwork
      • A01
        • Shift work can lead to de-synchronisation of biological rhythms. Night workers must sleep throughout the day, which is reverse to your natural rhythms and out of line form cues from zeitgebers.
        • Night workers experienced a circadian 'trough' of decreased alertness during their shift which occurs when temperature is at its lowest.
        • Workers who sleep during the day, experience problems because when they finish it's daytime.
        • Shift work effects may not just be due to disruption of biological rhythms. Workers experience social disruption meaning it is difficult to meet friends or spend time with family.
        • There are ways to reduce harmful effects of shift work. Gold found non-fluctuating shifts are less disruptive because an individual can get used to one sleep / wake cycle.
      • A02
        • Tilley + Wilkinson
          • States that poor daytime sleep makes it even harder for night workers to stay awake through the night.
        • There is a relationship between shift work and organ disease as Knattson found that individuals that work on shifts for more than 15 years were three times more likely to develop heart disease.
        • Divorce rates are as high as 60% among all-night shift workers. This suggests that there may be other consequences of shift work.
        • Czeisler
          • Studied shift workers and found that there were high levels of illness as well as stress levels. Due to workers being out of synchronisation with their internal body clocks and the exogenous zeitgebers.
            • The shift workers moved to phase-delay and found rotation reduced negative effects and were adjusted every 21 days, nine months later, the workers were much more happier and healthier.
    • Biological rhythms are driven by endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers
    • Jet Lag
      • A01
        • Jet lag is a term used to refer to psychological effects of disruption to circadian rhythms. The symptoms consist of feeling fatigue, tired and achy.
        • It is caused by travelling across time zones so quickly that biological rhythms don't match external cues. This causes sleepiness during the day and restlessness at night.
          • It is worse travelling west to east, another reason for jet lag is the biological clock regulating temperature needs to reset.
        • Social customs can help entrain biological rhythms when travelling, it can help to eat before travelling.
      • A02
        • A way to demonstrate negative effects of jet lag is to study American baseball teams. Schwarts found that baseball sides from eastern USA play better against teams in the west than western teams do in the east. This suggest that phase advance has more severe consequences.
        • Melatonin has been put forward as a cure for jet lag. Petire reviewed 10 studies and found that where melatonin was used near bed time, it was effective. However, if taken at the wrong time, it may delay adaptation.
          • This suggests that melatonin may be be as effective and if taken at the wrong time, it can make symptoms worse.


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