gender bias in psychology essay plan

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  • Discuss gender bias in psychology (16 marks)
    • 1. Gender bias definition
      • Differential treatment or representation of men and women based on stereotypes rather than real differences
    • 3. Androcentrism definition
      • Centred or focused on men, often to the neglect or exclusion of women
    • 4. Alpha bias with example
      • Exaggerates the differences between men and women and therefore devalue one gender
      • Freud's research
        • Femininity is failed masculinity due to inability to undergo the Oedipus complex
    • 5.Beta bias with example
      • Assuming what is true for men, is true for women- hence minimising differences
      • Fight-or-flight response research
        • Originally done on male animals due to difficult female hormones, however Taylor (2000) found tend-and-befriend response in women
    • 2. Universality definition
      • The aim to develop theories that apply to all people, which includes real differences
    • 6. Evaluation
      • Studies emphasising the value of women
        • Cornwell et al (2013)
          • Women are better at learning due to being more attentive, flexible and organised
      • Serious consequences for women
        • Hare-Mustin
          • Draws away from women's special needs such as demands of pregnancy
      • Research method difference over gender difference
        • Eagly & Johnson (1990)
          • Lab experiments disadvantage women
      • Investigator effects over gender differences
        • Rosenthal (1966)
          • Male experimenters are more pleasant to female participants

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