routes of drug administration

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  • Created by: ucnvrk2
  • Created on: 05-10-17 13:12
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  • Different Routes Of Drug Administration
    • Enternal
      • oral
        • apply topically to the mouth
        • swallow
          • Via Gastrointestinal system
            • Advantage
              • Convinient, e.g painfree
              • Goes along the whole GI track
              • Cheap to make
            • Disadvantage
              • only insufficient amount absorbed
              • passes throughthe liver (first pass effect)
                • so broken down into other substances
              • takes a long time
              • some incapable of swalloing
      • sublingual
        • placed unedr the tounge
          • Advantage
            • Quick
            • Avoid first pass
          • Disadvantage
            • small quantity absorbed at a time
      • buccal
        • Placed between gum and inner lining of cheek
          • Advantage
            • avoid first-pass effect
            • Quick
          • disadvantage
            • small dosage
            • inconvenient
            • lost if swallowed
      • rectal
    • Tropical
      • administration of drug directly onto the skin surface
        • Although it has a local effect it might not be able to get to the deeper layer of skin
      • Includes mucous membrains
        • E.g eyes, nose, ears, vagaina, colon, lungs, urethra
      • Dosage form
        • Skin
          • cream
          • Ointment
          • lotions
            • Patch
          • Disk
        • Eye/Ear
          • soloutions
          • Suspentions
          • Ointments
        • Nose/lungs
          • sprays
          • Powders
    • Parenternal
      • Intravenous,(IV) administrated via injection, by passing the alimentary canal
        • Advantage
          • First pass avoided
          • Bioavailbility 100%
          • Large quantity
          • Fast
        • disadvantage
          • Danger of infection
          • Expensive
          • Painful & less convinient
      • inhalation
      • Intramuscular(IM)
        • Advantages
          • first pass and gastric system avoided
          • Rapid
        • Disadvantage
          • only a limited amount can be given
          • Nerve damage
          • Expensive
      • Subcutaneous
        • Injected under the skin, absorption is slow so action is prolonged
        • e.g Implants
      • Intra-arterial
        • Rarely used is anticancer drugs for local effect
      • intra-articular
        • injection of antibiotics in inflamed joined cavities
      • intradermal
        • Drug given under the skin, that is painful
  • disadvantage
    • Danger of infection
    • Expensive
    • Painful & less convinient

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