The Development Gap

  • Created by: GBushell
  • Created on: 11-04-14 11:56
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  • The Development Gap
    • Differences in Development
      • development means change generally for the better in geography
      • factors that affect development: environmental factors, economic factors, social factors, political factors
      • you can measure development in several ways e.g. wealth is measured with GDP and GNI
        • GDP - (gross domestic produce) the total value of the goods and services produced by a country in a year
        • GNI - (gross national income) same as GDP but also includes money earned from overseas
    • Dividing up the World
      • 2 countries can be compared easily using only one indicator however using more than measurement is a more accurate way of telling how developed a country is.
      • you can divide the world by using the north-south Brandt line. showing a rich north and poor south
      • using levels of income is a more accurate way of dividing up the world
        • you can divide the world by using the north-south Brandt line. showing a rich north and poor south
      • The human development index
        • life expectancy
        • education (literacy rate and numbers of yrs spent at school)
        • GDP per capita
    • Standard of Living and Quality of life
      • standard of living refers to how much money people have = GDP per capita
        • hundreds of people are living on a dollar a day or less
      • hundreds of people are living on a dollar a day or less
      • quality of life is whether people have a long and healthy life, knowledge and standard of living
      • other aspects of quality of life are harder to measure, e.g. safe, clean environment, voting without interference, the right to privacy
    • Widening the Gap
      • Environmental Factors: these include natural hazards like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and hurricanes. Poorer countries tend to suffer most because they lack the money to prepare for, and recover from them
      • Economic Factors:  these include things like trade
      • Political Factors: where the government does something to benefit the country - but it doesn't always have such a beneficial effect
      • Social Factors: water availability impacts directly on the development gap because water isn't spread evenly around the world
    • Trade and the Development Gap
      • IMPORTS  - the goods and services they buy from elsewhere
      • EXPORTS - the things they sell to other countris
      • TRADE BALANCE - the difference between imports and expotrs
      • TRADE SURPLUS - where the country exports more than it imports = a country gets richer
      • TRADE DEFICIT - where the country imports more than it exports = a country gets poorer
    • Reducing the Gap
      • most trade is controlled by the richer countries by using tariffs and quotas
        • tariffs are taxes paid on imports
        • quotas are precise limits on the quantity of goods that can be impoted
        • free trade is where countries don't don't discourage, or restrict, the movement of goods with tariffs or quotas
      • Trading groups - these are countries that have grouped together to increase the amount they trade between them, and the value of their trade.
        • EU try to increase trade within the group, poorer countries from outside lose out and the development gap widens
        • E.G. world trade organisation and fair trade
      • Conservation Swaps - a way of tackling debt, and benefiting nature and conservation at the same


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