Diabetes and it's control

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  • Diabetes and its control
    • Diabetes is a chronic disease in which a person is unable to metabolise carbohydrate, especially glucose, properly.
    • There are over 100 million people world wide with diabetes, 1.4 million of whom are in the UK. In addition  a further 1 million people in the UK are thought to be unaware of having diabetes.
    • Types of sugar diabetes
      • Type 1 (insulin dependent) is due to the body being unable to produce insulin.
        • It normally begins in childhood and it may be the result of an autoimmune response whereby the bodies immune system attacks its own cells.
        • This type develops very fast and the symptoms are usually obvious.
      • Type 2 (insulin independent) is normally due to the glycoprotein receptors on the body cells losing their responsiveness to insulin.
        • Usually develops in people over the age of 40. Obesity and poor dieting can leading to this type of diabetes.
        • It develops slowly and the symptoms are usually less serve and may go unnoticed. People who are overweight are particularly likely to develop type 2.
        • Over 75% of people with diabetes have type 2.
    • Control of diabetes
      • Type 1 diabetes is controlled by injections of insulin. This cannot be taken by mouth because it would be digested.
        • The dose of insulin must be matched exactly to the glucose intake. if a diabetic takes too much insulin it can result in unconsciousness. By doing this diabetics can lead a normal life.
      • Type 2 diabetes is controlled by regulating the intake of carbohydrate in the diet and matching this to the amount of exercise taken in.
        • In some cases this may be supplemented by injections of insulin or by the use of drugs that stimulate insulin production.


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