Democracy + Participation

  • Created by: comfortm
  • Created on: 22-02-19 10:08
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  • Democracy and Participation
    • Types of representation
      • Social
      • Causal
      • Functional
      • Party
      • Constituency
      • National
    • Forms of Representation
      • Constituencies
      • Government
      • Mandate + Manifesto
      • Pressure Groups
        • There are 700+ pressure groups in the UK
        • Have active or inactive membership
        • Examples: Greenpeace (causal), British Medical Association (Sectional)
        • Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) successfully introduced legislation under the Health Act 2006 which made the workplace smoke-free.
        • Factors of success
          • Size, e.g. Age UK is large and successful
          • Finance and Wealth, e.g. Institute of Directors (IOD)
          • Strategic position of particular sectional group, e.g. banking companies, teachers, motor industries, medical professionals.
          • Public Mood, e.g. ASH reflects anti-smoking attitudes
          • Attitude of Goverment, e.g. Lib Dem support of Child Poverty Action Group (CPAG) led to reduce tax burden on low-income workers
        • The Occupy London movement in 2011 failed to improve social equality and make people aware of corporate greed b/c of resistance from the authorities when camping outside of St Pauls
      • Parties
    • Types of Participation
      • Party Membership (active/passive)
        • Membership has steadily declined since the 1950s
        • After the 2014 Scottish Independence referendum, SNP membership surged - they claimed to have 100,000 members
        • Surge in Labour Membership in 2015 after Ed Miliband lowered subscription fee to £3.
      • Pressure Group Membership (active/passive)
        • Declining party membership has been replaced by pressure group participation.
        • Rely on mass activism instead of large, formal membership
      • Digital  Activism
        • E-petitions are a fast-growing form of democracy
        • In 2016, a petition for a second referendum on the Parliamentary petition site got 3.8 million signatures.
        • Sites like and 38 Degrees help to create social movements.
        • The importance of social media campaigning is growing
      • Voting
        • The most important form of participation for citizens in a representative democracy.
        • General trend of falling turnout
        • 2001 and 2005 was the lowest recorded (60%), recovery in 2010 (65%) that extended to 2017 (70%)
        • People are uninterested in conventional politics which has led to voter apathy
        • Turnout in the UK is better that France and the USA


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