Contraception

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  • Contraception
    • allows a couple to choose when to have children and how many children to have
    • Mechanical (physical)
      • Condom
        • advantage: easily obtained and also protects against sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV which leads to AIDS, chlymydia which may leads to infertility if left untreated and gonorrhoea
        • method: acts as a barrier to prevent the passage of sperm entering to woman
        • disadvantage: unreliable if not used properly
    • Chemical
      • Contraceptive pill
      • method: taken regularly by the woman and prevents the ovaries from releasing eggs by chaining hormone levels
      • advantage: very reliable
      • disadvantage: can cause side-effects such as weight gain and may increase risk of blood clots
    • Surgical
      • vasectomy
      • method: cutting of sperm ducts preventing sperm from entering penis
      • advantage: virtually 100% reliable
      • disadvantage: very difficult or impossible to reverse
    • Surgical
      • female sterilisation
      • method: cutting of the oviducts, preventing ova from moving through the oviduct and being fertilised
      • advantage: virtually 100% reliable
      • disadvantage: very difficult or impossible to reverse
  • choosing a method of contraception depends on religious beliefs and whether a long or short-term method is required
    • raises ethical issues
      • rhythm method can be chosen - avoiding sexual intercourse around ovulation
        • much less effective as the menstrual cycle in many women is irregular, making it difficult to predict when ovulation will take place

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