Aspects of life in the Tudor Period
- Renaissance - Tudors began to observe and experiment scientifically. e.g. Nicholas Copernicus said the Earth revolves around the Sun. Also the printing press was made so books could now be printed.
- The New World - Knowledge of the world increased during 1500. Many explorers successfully found new land and countries that they then conquered. Christopher Columbus was an explore who went out to find India but ended up finding the West Indies.
- Reformation - Henry VIII argued with the Pope as the Pope would not accept a divorce. this then led to Henry breaking away from the Catholic Church and setting up the Church of England making England a Protestant counrty.
- Occupation - Farming was considered the main occupation in the Tudor times. Majority of the people grew their own food. Industry of wool was most important. Coal and tin mining, iron smelting, canon making and ship building were also important.
- Population - The population of London was 4 times as high as the end of the 16th century from the start of the 16th century. The Tudor population rose from 3.5 million to 5 million.
- Court of the star chamber - New based on old methods-So that the barons were given same criminal treatment as everyone else. They could go to prison. It instilled discipline and made money from guilty verdicts.
- Court of Requests - Old-So that the barons were given same criminal treatment as everyone else. They could go to prison. It instilled discipline and made money from guilty verdicts.
- Use of Parliament - Old - Hardly ever used, so that any objections against his government didn’t have the chance to be raised. It was made up of trusted people on his side, and used when he needed money, because everyone would vote in new taxes.
- Raising Money - New - When he came to power, Henry VII found the Royal Treasury almost empty. He made barons pay taxes called ‘Gifts’ and was strict in collecting rents and taxing goods in and out of England. This rebuilt the Treasury.
- Foreign Relations - Old - Henry VII was careful to avoid costly wards. He only fought one, from which he made a profit. He kept peace with other countries by marriage. For example, his eldest son, Arthur, married the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon.
Factors affecting climate
Climate is the average weather in aplace
- Distance from the sea – in winter, it is colder the closer you are because the land warms up quicker than the sea, but in summer it is warmer because the sea is till giving off heat while the land is cooling
- Latitude – the closer you are to the equator, the warmer it is
- Prevailing wind direction – the wind carries moisture which reduces temperature, so if there is nothing blocking the prevailing wind it will be cooler
- Relief/height/altitude – the higher up you are, the colder and windier it gets
- Ocean currents – if you are near an ocean current it will be colder and windier
- Urbanisation – built-up areas are warmer than isolated areas because of the heat given off from buildings
- Shelter – hills block wind from reaching an area, making it warmer and drier
- Sun warms up the land which warms the air above it
- Warm air rises
- Air cools and vapour condenses, forming clouds and rain
- Warm moist air from the Atlantic meets a hill
- The air is forced to rise
- The air cools and water vapour condenses, forming clouds
- It rains near the top of hill – windward side gets more rain
- The air on the other side of the hill drops, warms up and is drier, so the leeward side stays dry – this is called the rainshadow
- Warm air mass meets cold air mass
- Warm air mass is forced to rise
- The air cools, water vapour condenses and clouds form
- It rains
BIRTH RATE – number of people born in an area per 1000 people per year
- Education of contraception
- Cost of contraception
- Education in life-planning
- Social status of women
- Cost of childcare
- Child labour
DEATH RATE - number of people born in an area per 1000 people per year
- Nursing homes
- Hard physical jobs
- Difficult access to food, clean water and medicine
- Cost of medicine
- Natural disasters
- NATURAL INCREASE – difference between the birth and death rates
- FERTILITY RATE – same as birth rate
- LIFE EXPECTANCY – average age of death
- INFANT MORTALITY RATE – number of deaths before the age of 1 per 1000 live births per year
- ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE – people between the ages of 14 and 60, who are contributing to the country’s economy
- DEPENDENT – people under 14 and over 60 who do not contribute to the country’s economy
- DEPENDENCY RATIO – dependent population divided by economically active population
- ISOLATED – a settlement located far from other settlements
- MIGRATION – the movement of people from one place to another
Water from the sea is evaporated by the sun, and so rises
It goes higher, where the temperature is cooler, so condenses
This causes clouds to form
Further cooling causes water droplets to form
The water falls as precipitation
The air descends, warms and produces drier conditions – rain shadow
Surface run-off – where the water travels down a surface
Groundwater – where the water sinks under the ground
- Monks and nuns no longer obeyed their vows - Religious
- Monasteries still looked on the Pope as their leader, not Henry - Political
- Thomas Cromwell, who was in charge of Henry’s new Church, supported Protestant ideas - Religious
- Monasteries reminded ordinary people of the importance of the Pope - Political. religious
- Monasteries were no longer useful, as their traditional jobs such as copying books were no longer needed
- Henry was afraid he might have to fight expensive wars against Catholic powers after he broke from Rome
- Henry could use the income from the land to make himself a very strong king
- Political, economical
- The people who bought monastic land from Henry would support his new Church
- Some monasteries hardly had any monks left in them
henry VIII reasons
He wanted a son to take over his throne. He already had a daughter but at the time it was unquestionable that a woman could rule the country. By having a son it would show him as more powerful. However, the Pope didn’t allow him to divorce his current wife, so he needed new religious laws.
He needed a lot of money. The Royal Treasury, after being so carefully restored by Henry VII, was nearly empty due to the costly wars that Henry was fighting. If he changed religion, he could close the monasteries and have their extensive wealth and lands. He ordered an investigation and discovered that the monasteries owned a quarter of the money and land in England, and was determined to stop that.
Finally, although Henry was king he felt that the Pope had more power over his people, and this made him angry. He wanted to have more power and thus wanted to control the English church. Going against the Church shed that he was extremely brave and powerful, which increased his popularity as a leader with the English people.