Concerto for Double Orchestra - Tippet

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  • Concerto for Double String Orchestra
    • General Information
      • Neoclassical
        • Music is completely his own
      • Uses English music of 16th & 17th century
      • Baroque concertos - no soloists
      • Sonata form
      • British folk music - not conventional tonality
      • Jazz & Blues rhythmic feel
      • Composed 1938/39
    • Performing Forces
      • Two string orchestras of normal arrangement - equal importance
        • Great variety
      • Both orchestras used together = weight and sonarity
        • Most frequent arrangement
      • All instruments = very active - no filling in parts
      • Each part usually one note at a time
      • Pizz in double bass
      • Sul Tasto in upper string parts
      • Many dynamics & articulation
      • Up & down bow actions = rhythmic emphasis
    • Structure
      • Recurring opening motif = suggests ritornello form
      • Overall = Sonata form
        • Two clearly defined subjects linked by transition
      • Development passes through more tonal areas
      • Opening material returns in Recapitulation
        • Second subject in home tonality of A instead of original G
      • Extended coda - reaffirms home tonality
    • Texture
      • Varied in number of parts
        • Doubling present - usually in octaves or parallel 3rds
      • Frequent 2 part counterpoint
      • Some imitation
      • Uses occasional homophony, monophony and antiphony
      • More lyrical sections = sometimes broken chords
    • Harmony & Tonality
      • Main tonal centre of A
        • Non-functional with modal elements
      • Shifts music to tonal areas
      • Harmonic intervals created by counterpoint
      • Base more on horizontal melody that vertical harmony
      • Some common chord progressions
      • Some important false relations
      • Tonal ambiguity
    • Melody
      • Built on melodic ideas - heard in first 4 bars
      • Transitions and developments = major 2nds replaced with minor 2nds = tension
      • Long notes & trills in transition
      • Use of lydian & mixolydian mode
      • Melodic sequence used in run up to recapitulation
      • Periodic phrasing at start of movement - freedom everywhere else
    • Rhythm & Metre
      • 8/8 - sometimes 6/8 & 4/8 = unequal beats
      • Modern jazz syncopation influences
        • Frequent rhythmic patterns extending over barlines
      • Bar 95 - regular crotchet pulse
        • Introduces rhythmic augmentation
          • Note lengths doub;ed again, again and again

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