Concerto for Double String Orchestra: movement I - Micheal Tippett

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  • Created by: AliP
  • Created on: 11-04-16 18:07
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  • Concerto for Double String Orchestra: movement I - Micheal Tippet
    • Performing forces and their handlng
      • Although there are two string orchestras, Tiippett did NOT label them '1st' and '2nd' as he thought they were of equal importance
      • Parts from one orchestra may double the other at times (eg: the phrygian cadence at bars 20-21)
        • Briefly, but not often, one orchestra plays alone
      • Instruments are very active - no filling in parts
      • Usually one note played at a time wth a bow, but there are a few 'special' string techniques
        • Double stopping (in the coda, bars 209 - 212) to reinforce the sfortzando chords
        • Pizz for double bass to accompany staccato in higher parts (bars 51-52)
        • Sul tasto, also known as flautando, (upper strings at bar 107). This is achieved by playing near or over the fingerboard
      • Performance instructions are detailed
        • Dynamics and marks of articulation
        • Indications of character
        • Up and Down bow indications
    • Texture
      • Varied in number of parts and doubling
      • Mostly contrapuntal
      • Antiphonal occasionally
        • Antiphony - the alternation of dfferent groups of performers
        • Orchestra 2 answers orchestra 1 (but a third higher) at bars 8-12
          • Another, more extended and varied antiphony at bar 74
      • Homophonic occasionallly
        • Chordal or homorhythmic at  bar 38
        • Melody and accompaniment style at bar 21
      • Doubling usually in octaves but there is also use of parallel 3rds
      • Counterpont is heard
        • At the start, the orchestras combine different melodic ideas
        • The lower part sometimes imitates the upper (at bars 8-10 and 10-12 this is done but inverted
        • Near the end there is substantial immitation (bars 221 and 228) this can then be termed 'canon'
    • Structure
      • Sonata form (the more useful way to view this movement)
        • Exposition (Bars 1-67)
          • 1st subject (bars 1-21)
          • Transition (bars 21-38)
          • 2nd subject (bars 39 - 67)
        • Development (Bars 68 - 128)
        • Recapulation (Bars 129-193)
          • 1st subject (bars 129-155)
          • Transition (bars 156-164)
          • 2nd subject (bars 165-193)
        • Coda (bars 194-232)
      • Can be thought of in two ways
      • Ritornello form (the more confusing one of the two)
        • Ritornello 1 (bars 1-8)
        • Episode 1 (bars 8-67)
        • Ritornello 2 (bars 68-71)
        • Episode 2 (bars 71-128)
        • Ritornello 3 (bars 129-136)
        • Episode 3 (bars 136 - 193)
        • Ritornello 4 (bars 194 - 201)
        • Episode 4 (bars 202-232)
    • Tonality
      • Mostly ambiguous
      • Could be in 'A'
        • Bar 1 begins with the note A
        • The last chord consists of A and E
        • Note A is prominant from bar 129 and bar 165 and in parts of the coda
      • Not, however, either in A minor or A major
        • Pentatonic scale used in bars 1-4 by the first orchestra is without C or C#
        • A major is strongly suggested in the coda and recapitualation
      • Frst subject is bascally A, the second subject is basically G
    • Harmony
      • When in two real parts
        • harmonic intervals used and are usually the result of counterpoint
        • Based on largely diatonic, modal or pentatonic lines
        • In bars 1-4 most intervals are cosonant
        • Major 2nds, minor 7ths and perfect 4ths
      • When in more than two real parts
        • Root postion triads
        • First inversons (coda)
        • False relation at bar 51
    • Melody
      • Based on short motifs
      • 1st motif - the first four notes (ABAB)
        • inversion in the lower strings (bars 8-11) used in immitaton with the original verson
        • Major 2nds repllaced by minor 2nds
      • 2nd motif - the three notes after  the first four notes
      • 3rd motif - following notes in the hgher octave GEGAGE
      • concludng 3 notes
      • Melodic sequencing
      • Periodic phrasing
    • Rhythm and metre
      • Alla breve
      • 8/8 due to unequal beats
      • rhythm changes noted
      • changes in time signature
      • Rhythmic augmentationat bars 95-106

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