Collectivisation / Five year plans STALIN

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  • Collectives
  • Trigger: famine 1927-28
  • Motives: socialism in the countryside
  • Removing NEP
  • Eradicating Kulaks
  • The process of bringing a number of small farms together to build bigger farms
  • To collaborate and produce more food
  • Utilising land in the optimum way
  • Before Stalin, only 3% of peasant farmers worked on collectives
  • Requisitioning was part of collectives
  • Kulaks sent to the Gulags
  • 1928-30 - 6-18m people
  • By 1941; 98%
  • = Famine 1932-34
  • Poor harvests from weather conditions
  • Death penalty imposed for stealing grain
  • Peasants who ate their own seed corn = executed
  • Economic
  • Workers struggled to meet these unrealistic targets
  • Coal 1928 = 35.5m tonnes ---- 1940 = 166m
  • False claims of production levels were submitted
  • Due to climate of fear
  • This fabrication backfired as Stalin revised these figures
  • New industrial towns developed - Magnitogorsk
  • Targets set by Gosplan
  • Successes
  • Metals were mined for the first time
  • Copper
  • Zinc
  • Electricity industry boomed
  • More regular employment
  • More stable incomes
  • Greater access to housing and education
  • Electricity to some villages
  • Building of schools
  • First health care
  • High literacy rates
  • Late 1920s - progress in agriculture
  • 1930s - stagnation but not decline
  • 1922 - 50.3m tonnes of grain ----- 1930 - 83.5m
  • Limitations
  • workers rights = disappeared
  • Range of punishments
  • Labour camps
  • Food rationing
  • Higher prices
  • Lower living standards
  • death penalty
  • Gulags
  • Targets not met
  • Shortage of workers - due to purges and show trials
  • Increase in output of heavy industry
  • New industrial centres emerged
  • REASONS
  • For Russia to become a major industrial force
  • Prepare for potential conflict with Capitalist enemies

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