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  • cognitivism
    • focuses on the processed involved in learning rather than on the observed behaviour
    • does not require an outward exhibition of learning, but focuses more on internal processes & connections that take place during learning
    • contends that "the black box" of the mind should be opened & understood. learner is viewed as an information processor
    • knowledge can be seen schema / symbolic mental constructions & learning defined as change in learner's schemata
    • some important classroom principles: meaningful learning, organisation, & elaboration
    • as a reaction against behaviourism:
      • cognitivists objected behaviourism as they felt that it thought learning was simply a reaction to a stimulus & ignored the idea that thinking plays an important role
      • Chomsky: language could not be acquired purely through conditioning, & it must be at least partly explained by the existence of some inner abilities
      • behaviourism fails to explain how children can learn an infinite number fo utterances that they have never heard of
    • learners are active participants in the learning process. the use various strategies to process & construct their personal understanding of the content to which they are exposed.
    • pupils are not cnsidered anymore as recipients that teachers fill with knowledge, but as acrive aprticipalnts in the learning


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