Cognitive Approach to Abnormality

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  • Cognitive Approach to Abnormality
    • internal processing
      • cognitive structure
        • structure used to organise info in the brain
      • cognitive process
        • the way info is used, either positive or negative
      • cognitive content
        • the info obtained/already there
    • suggests that mental illness is the result of the individual's distorted thoughts
    • Albert Ellis (1962) - ABC model
      • activating event
        • belief
          • consequence - behaviour
          • rational
            • healthy emotions
          • irrational
            • unhealthy emotions
    • Beck's model of depression (1979)
      • the cognitive triad
        • negative schemata of self, world and future
          • cognitive biases
            • catastrophising
              • exaggerating minor setback until it become complete disaster
            • over-generalisation
              • making sweeping conclusion on basis of single event
            • personalising
              • taking blame and responsibility for all unpleasant things that happen
            • selective abstraction
              • drawing conclusion focusing on one element whilst ignoring others
            • black and white thinking
              • thinking in terms of success and failure
            • arbitrary  interference
              • drawing a conclusion in absence of sufficient evidence
    • evaluation
      • empirical evidence present
        • Thase et al (2007) compared cognitive therapy to antidepressant medication in treating depression - CT no less effective and more tolerated
          • cognitive approach can be proven effective - assumptions must be correct, also gives alternative treatment for depression
      • high success rate when comparing to others
        • Smith and Glass (1977) meta-analysis, CT second highest success rate
          • consistent with other studies - reliable
          • disadvantage - FILE DRAWER EFFECT
            • researcher choose which research they want top include so could be bias
      • hard to establish cause and effect
        • do thoughts and beliefs cause disturbance or does mental illness cause faulty thinking?
          • disadvantage
            • people could not be being treated properly
      • depressed people found to give more accurate estimates of likelihood of disaster than normal controls - Alloy and Abrahmson (1979)
        • advantage
        • disadvantage
          • treating people for a problem that is advantageous 'realism'


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