Cognitive Approach - summary

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • COGNITIVE APPROACH - SUMMARY
    • Methodology
      • Experiment types
        • Laboratory experiment
        • Field experiment
          • natural for participant
        • Natural experiment
      • Variables
        • Independent - changed
        • Dependent - measure
        • Extraneous - any variable apart from IV that can influence findings
        • Situational - noise, lighting, location etc
        • Participant - individual differences - motivation etc
      • Operationalisation
        • defining precisely how you will measure DV and alter IV
      • Participant designs
        • Independent groups
          • only one experimental condition is tested on one group of participants
        • Repeated measures
          • same participants used in all experimental conditions
        • Matched pairs
          • same as independent groups but all participants are matched
      • Order effects
        • occur when participants take part in all experimental conditions - practice & fatigue
        • Counterbalancing
          • participants divided equally between conditions
        • Randomisation
          • participants randomly assigned to a condition
    • Levels of Processing - Craik and Lockhart
      • Maintenance rehearsal
        • unlikely to result in a strong memory
      • Elaborate rehearsal
        • deeper consideration
        • giving it  a meaning
        • more likely to result in strong memory
      • Central Processor
        • determines how information is processed
    • Content
      • Atkinson & Shiffrin - Multi-store Model of memory
        • Sensory memory
          • information from senses
          • 1/4 -1/2 a second
          • very large capacity
          • information decays unless attended to
        • Short term memory
          • 18-30 seconds - Peterson & Peterson
          • 7 +/- 2 items - Miller
          • if rehearsed for 30 seconds, enters long term
          • decay
          • displaced
        • Long term memory
          • unlimited
          • forever
          • retrieval failure
      • Cue-dependent forgetting
        • cannot recall a certain memory because the cues are not there
        • Contex-dependent forgetting
          • contextual cues not present - environment
        • State-dependent forgetting
          • not in same physical/emotional state
    • Studies in detail
      • Godden & Baddeley - context dependent memory 1975
        • 13.5 dry dry
        • 11.4 wet wet
        • 8.6 dry wet
        • 8.4 wet dry
      • Craik & Tulving - Levels of Processing 1975
        • semantic - 65%
        • phonetic - 36%
        • structural - 17%
    • Key issue
      • Is eye witness testimony reliable?
      • Elizabeth Loftus - weapon focus
      • Cue-dependent - may not be cues present or may be in a different state
      • Bartlett - reconstructive memory
      • Elizabeth Loftus - leading questions
      • Levels of processing - may not have elaborately rehearsed information

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Approaches resources »