Climate Change Evidence

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  • Climate Change: Evidence
    • Long Term Change
      • Ice Cores
        • Show different layers of an ice sheet.
          • Gases in ice analysed to find data such as temperature / CO2 levels of each year
            • Over last 400,000 years in Antarctica, temperature fluctuates
              • Glacial periods (100,000 yrs) and Interglacial Periods (10,000 yrs)
            • Max. 280ppm in last 800,000 years.
              • Up to 380 in 2007
      • Pollen Analysis
        • Pollen can be preserved in sediment, shows past ecology
          • Can be dated, showing a change in ecosystems from glacial to interglacial
            • Tundra in G, forests in IG
    • Medium Term Change
      • Tree Rings
        • Produced each year as tree grows. Good conditions create thick ring
          • The different rings show what climates were like each year, up to 10,000 years ago
      • Retreating Glaciers
        • Size of glacier shown by deposition of rocks. Rocks are dated to show when
          • Distance of deposited rocks to current glacier position
            • EG. Further away, bigger increase in temperature
      • Historical Records
        • EG. Paintings, farming data, written accounts
      • Last glacial period around 18000 years ago
        • Now interglacial period
    • Short Term Change
      • Weather
        • Records kept since 1861, help to show detailed change
      • Polar Ice
        • Data shows reduction of ice at both poles
          • Increased melting showing increasing temperature
      • Ecosystems
        • Climate affects food and shelter supplies
          • Species distribution indicates climate changes
      • Over last 1000 years, sharp temperature rise
        • Over last 100 years, steady rise, slight fluctuations
    • Data Reliability
      • Less uncertainty now due to more use of modern technology
        • Geographical Info Systems
      • Data now on a global scale in detail

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