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  • The Five Kingdoms
    • Prokaryotae
      • Cell wall made of peptidoglycan
      • Some are heterotrophs, some are autotrophs
      • No nucleus or membrane bound organelles
      • Prokaryotic cell structure
      • Very small (0.5-10um)
      • Can have a capsule/slime layer
      • Some walls have short protein rods called pili
        • they stick from the walls and stick cells together
      • Cell division is by fission
    • Protoctista
      • Contains about 30 different phyla whose members are all simple bodied eukaryotes
      • Can be autotrophs or heterotrophs
      • About 100,000 known Protoctista species
      • No cell wall (some exceptions)
      • Kingdom best described by exclusion. If an organism is not part of the other four kingdoms, it is a protoctist
      • Eukaryotic unicellular or multicellular with limited differentiation
    • Fungi
      • Lysotrophic (saprophytic)
      • Most fungi have bodies made of thread like filaments called hyphae
      • Cell wall made of chitin
      • They feed by extracellular digestion
        • Hydrolytic enzymes are secreted into the soil by exocytosis
          • After enzymes have digested organic material in the soil they absorb the products of digestion
      • Eukaryotic multicellular or unicellular
      • About 100,000 fungi species (moulds, mushrooms, toadstools etc.)
    • Plantae
      • Eukaryotic organisms containing large vacuoles
      • Contain chlorophyll, found in chloroplasts
      • Autotrophic nutrition
      • They store carbohydrates as starch and lipids as oils
      • Cellulose cell wall
      • About 350,000 plant species (mosses, ferns, flowering plants etc.)
      • Eukaryotic multicellular
    • Animalia
      • Heterotrophs
      • Animals store carbohydrates as glycogen and lipids as fats
      • No cell wall
      • Most are capable of locomotion
      • Eukaryotic multicellular
      • Contain over 1 million species (flatworms, insects, chordates etc.)


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