Classification Systems

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  • Classification systems
    • Phylogenic - reflecting evolutionary relatedness.
      • Phylogenic classification is when closely related organisms are placed into the same group.
      • Organisms in the same group have a more recent common ancestor with each other than with those in a different group.
    • Classification is hierarchical: larger groups divide into smaller groups.
    • Any group within a system of classification is called a taxon.
      • Plural: taxa
      • Largest taxon = Domains. The three domains split into sub groups called kingdoms.
        • 1st and 2nd Domain: Eubacteria and Archaea
          • These split into the kingdom prokaryota.
        • 3rd Domain: Eukaryota
          • These split into the kingdoms plantae, animalia, protoctista and fungi.
      • DOMAIN, Kingdom, Phylum, Class,Order, Family, Genus, species.
    • Classification systems are discrete: at any level of classification, a species will belong to one taxon only.
    • Why do we need a classification system?
      • It is universal and so allows for more effective communication.
        • The Binomial system is a universal, unique system of naming that consists of two parts: the genus and the species.
          • It is unambiguous.
          • It is understood all over the world.
          • It suggests that two organisms that share the same part in their name are closely related.
            • E.G .Panthera tigris (tiger) and Panthera leo (lion).
      • Phylogenic classification means that we can infer the relatedness of organisms.
      • If a new species is discovered we can use classification systems to predict some of its features.
      • It is easier to count families rather than species when determining the health of an ecosystem.
    • Classification is tentative.
      • It is not fixed or certain.
    • The Binomial system is a universal, unique system of naming that consists of two parts: the genus and the species.
      • It is unambiguous.
      • It is understood all over the world.
      • It suggests that two organisms that share the same part in their name are closely related.
        • E.G .Panthera tigris (tiger) and Panthera leo (lion).

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