Internal factors of class differences

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  • Created by: charl_w
  • Created on: 15-03-15 17:53
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  • Class differences in achievement (internal factors)
    • Labelling
      • Meanings or definitions we attach to people. Example-m/c pupils labelled as 'bright' or motivated'.
        • Becker (1961) argues that teachers label m/c children as 'ideal pupils' and prefer to teach them to w/c kids.
      • Keddie found that teachers that taught high ability streams were taught abstract, theoretical, high status knowledge.
      • Keddie found that teachers who taught lower ability streams were given descriptive, status knowledge.
    • The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy.
      • Step 1.) The teacher labels a pupil (e.g as being intelligent) and on the basis makes predictions about him. (he will make good academic progress).
        • Step 2.) Teacher treats the pupil accordingly acting as the prediction is true already. (e.g giving him more attention and expecting high expectations of work)
          • Step 3.) The pupil becomes the teachers expectation and the prediction is fulfilled.
      • Teachers create a self-fulfilling prophecy through labels.
    • Streaming
      • Extreme and institutionalised form of labelling.
      • Streaming involves separating children into different ability groups.
        • Each stream is taught separately.
      • Self fulfilling prophecy is likely to occur when children are streamed.
      • w/c kids are likely to be lower streams. Once placed in this stream its hard to move up. Children are locked onto teachers low expectations of them.
      • M/C pupils benefit from this. Placed in high streams and develop positive attitudes, confidence and improve grades.
    • Pupil Subcultures
      • Pro-school subcultures.
        • Pupils placed in high streams (m/c usually) remain committed to values of school.
        • Gain status through academic success. Value school.
      • Anti-school subcultures
        • Usually w/c.
        • Suffer loss of self esteem; school has undermined their self-worth by giving them an inferior status.
        • Label of failure push them to gain alternative ways of gaining status such as rebelling from rules.
        • Truanting, not doing work, smoking and drinking.
    • Marketisation and selection policies
      • Education Triage
        • System wear schools ration their time, effort and resources, concentrating on pupils having potential to get 5 A*-C's to boost schools league table.
        • Pupils
          • Triage
            • Hopeless cases.
            • Borderline C/D pupils targeted for extra help.
            • Those who will pass anyway.


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