Class differences in achievement- cultural deprivation

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  • Class differences in achievement- cultural deprivation
    • Language
      • Barry Troyna and Jenny Williams- the problem is the m/c-w/c-black speech hierarchy)
      • Carl Bareiter and Siegfried Engelmann- language used in w/c homes is deficient- gestures, disjointed phrases, single words- children lack language skills
      • Basil Bernstein: w/c pupils use a restricted code (little depth, detail or value- context dependent) and aren't taught the m/c's elaborated code (the opposite!)
        • Elaborated code is also used by teachers, textbooks and exams, and is effective for analysis, reasoning and expressions
    • Attitudes and values
      • Leon Feinstein- w/c parents' lack of interest is a main factor, compared to to the discipline, motivation and support of m/c parents
      • Herbert  Hyman- values and beliefs of w/c subcultures are a self-imposed barrier- they don't know or want how to get success
      • M/c values gained through primary socialisation equip for success; w/c does not
      • Douglas- w/c parents- less value on education, ambition, encouragement, interest, school visits, teacher discussions-> less achievement motivation
        • Schools with mainly w/c pupils have less effective systems of parent-school contacts, making it difficult to keep in touch
        • Tessa Blackstone and Jo Mortimore- w/c parents do care, but have longer/ irregular work hours and lack the education/knowledge to help
      • Barry Sugarman- w/c subculture has 4key barriers:
        • Collectivism- being in a group is more important than individual achievement
        • Immediate gratification- pleasure now, not sacrifices for long-term pleasure
        • W/c children internalise beliefs and values of their subculture through socialisation-> underachieving
        • Present a time orientation- not having long term goals/plans
        • Only m/c jobs are secure and offer career prospects encouraging long-term advancement
        • Fatalism- 'whatever will be, will be'
    • Intellectual development
      • Many w/c homes lack intellectually stimulating books, toys and activities.
      • Basil Bernstein and Douglas Young- the way mothers choose toys influences intellectual development
      • JWB Douglas- w/c pupils scored lower on tests of ability, as parents are less likely to support by reading with them, etc.
    • Neil Keddie- cultural deprivation is a myth, a victim-blaming exercise. W/c are culturally DIFFERENT, and are disadvantaged by an education system dominated by m/c values
    • Compensatory education policies (to make up for the material and cultural disadvantage experienced by the poor):
      • Education Priority Areas (60's UK)
      • Sure Start and Excellence in Cities
      • Education Maintenance Allowance
      • Operation  Head Start (1960s U.S.)
      • Education Action Zones


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