Class Differences In Achievement

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  • Created by: Summer_
  • Created on: 31-03-16 16:24
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  • Class Differences in achievement
    • INTERNAL factors
      • Labelling
        • BECKER
          • Teachers would label pupils on what they thought was the 'ideal pupil' this was usually a middle-class student
        • RIST
          • Primary school teacher used info from a child's home background to put them in separate groups, working-class ones were sat furtherest away with fewer books and less opportunities
        • KEDDIE
          • Although curriculum is the same, teachers give positively labelled pupils more abstract knowledge
        • MARXISTS
          • However their labels stem from the fact teachers work in a system that reproduces class divisions
        • CONTRAST- MARY FULLER
          • Her study on yr 11 black girls who rejected labels given to them by teachers (NEGATING SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY)
            • Illustrates that the labelling theory isn't always true
        • GILLBOURNE & YOUDELL
          • 'A*- C economy' schools ration time and effort on those who are going to achieve 5 A*- C grades & boost league table position. they call this the 'EDUCATIONAL TRIAGE'
            • Categorise pupils into those who will pass anyway, those with potential and the hopeless cases. This could create a self-fulfilling prophecy
              • Labelling
                • BECKER
                  • Teachers would label pupils on what they thought was the 'ideal pupil' this was usually a middle-class student
                • RIST
                  • Primary school teacher used info from a child's home background to put them in separate groups, working-class ones were sat furtherest away with fewer books and less opportunities
                • KEDDIE
                  • Although curriculum is the same, teachers give positively labelled pupils more abstract knowledge
                • MARXISTS
                  • However their labels stem from the fact teachers work in a system that reproduces class divisions
                • CONTRAST- MARY FULLER
                  • Her study on yr 11 black girls who rejected labels given to them by teachers (NEGATING SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY)
                    • Illustrates that the labelling theory isn't always true
                • GILLBOURNE & YOUDELL
                  • 'A*- C economy' schools ration time and effort on those who are going to achieve 5 A*- C grades & boost league table position. they call this the 'EDUCATIONAL TRIAGE'
                    • Categorise pupils into those who will pass anyway, those with potential and the hopeless cases. This could create a self-fulfilling prophecy
        • Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
          • ROSENTHAL & JACOBSON
            • Made false test that identified some children that were going to do well, it came true because the teacher treated these pupils accordingly which helped them improve
          • BECKER
            • Working- class pupils are put in a lower stream as they aren't seen as 'ideal pupils' they feel like they have been given up on so create a Negative Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
          • DOUGLAS
            • Pupils put in a lower stream aged 8 had a decline in their IQ score by 11
        • Pupil Subcultures
          • LACEY
            • DIFFERENTIATION- teachers categorising pupils according to how they perceive their ability
            • POLARISATION- how pupils respond to streaming, moving from one extreme to the other
          • BALL
            • If streaming was abolished, the influence of anti-school subcultures would decline
          • Pupils placed in higher streams (usually middle-class pupils) created a pro-school subculture & abide by the rules and regulations, leads to positive self-fulfilling prophecy
            • Pupils in lower streams (usually working-class pupils) created a anti-school subculture, which led to a self-fulfilling prophecy of educational failure
        • Marketisation & Social Policies
          • Image- some schools use a traditional image to attract middle-class parents
          • Competition- marketisation created competition to get the best league table results and attract middle-class parents
            • Better schools can can cream-skin to get middle-class pupils and silt-shift the working-class pupils, which disadvantages the working-class pupils
              • BARTLETT
                • Cream-skimming and silt-shifting schools select high-ability students, offloading the less attractive students (not the 'ideal pupils' and those with learning difficulties to other schools to avoid expense and bad results
      • EXTERNAL factors
        • Cultural Deprivation
          • SUGARMAN
            • Attitudes & Values- working class parents don't value education
          • BERNSTIEN
            • Intellectual Development- Toys
            • Language- Restricted & Elaborated codes
        • Material Deprivation
          • Housing- overcrowding, harder to study, health effects
          • HOWARD
            • Diet & Health- poor nutrition, lower energy levels, more prone to illness
          • FLAHERTY
            • Financial Support- lack of equipment, unable to go on trips, stigma attached to free school meals
        • Cultural Capital
          • BOURDIEU
            • Cultural Capital- socialisation of middle-class develop intellectual interests to help with education, puts them at an advantage
          • LEECH & CAMPOS
            • Educational and Economic Capital- middle-class children are better equipped to meet the demands of the school curriculum
          • GERWITZ
            • Marketisation & Parental Choice
              • Middle-class parents are privileged school choosers, used their economic and cultural capital to gain educational capital.
                • They know how schools work and the importance of meeting deadlines
              • Disconnected local choosers- working-class parents didn't understand school admissions, didn't know the choices and were restricted by travel costs so sent kids to local comprehensive
                • They know how schools work and the importance of meeting deadlines
              • Semi-skilled choosers- ambitious working class parents, lacked culture capital so relied on help of others

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