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  • Cholera - cell structure and disease
    • Plasma Membrane
      • Controls the movement of substances in and out of a cell
    • Plasmids
      • small free-floating loops of DNA that contain genes for antibiotic resistance
    • Capsule
      • Made of saccharides, this layer of 'slime' protects the cell from attacks by the immune system
    • Cell Wall
      • Made up of peptidoglycan the cell wall offers support to the cells structure
    • How does it work?
      • Cholera uses a toxin that makes the chloride ion protein channel open within the small intestine
        • The chloride ions then enter the lumen of the small intestine, thus decreasing the water potential
          • This causes a concentration gradient, so the water from the blood moves into the intestine lumen and causes diarrhoea
            • Diarrhoea causes massive amounts of dehydration in the body, this is easily treatable but if left untreated it can be fatal
    • DNA
      • Long, free-floating coil of DNA in cytoplasm
    • Flagellum
      • Allows the cell to move by rotating its hair-like structure
    • How is it treated?
      • Oral Re-hydration Solutions (ORS)
        • Theses contain Na ions, Cl ions, Glucose and sucrose, all of which is dissolved in water
          • Na and Glucose are co-transported, this is because Na helps the body absorb glucose faster
            • ORS balances the concentration gradient to prevent more water entering the lumen
              • This is a cheap, but effective way of beating Cholera but in 3rd world countries this can still be hard to find
        • Ethical Issues
          • The most affected are children whose parents put them in for ORS drug trials
          • people are given different treatments in bind trial, but some think that they should get to decide what treatment they get
          • New drugs aren't always successful, so some patients are at risk of death


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