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    • The Change in the Position of Children
      • March to Progress View.
        • Believes that over the last few centuries the position of children has changed positively.
        • Argue that today children are more valued, better cared for, protected, educated  and have better health rights.
          • Better healthcare and living standards mean higher chance of survival.
          • Laws protect them from harm and explotation.
          • Higher living standards and smaller family sizes (5.7 births 1860s- 1.84 births 2006) increase survival chances.
        • The Family Has Become Child-Centered.
          • Children are the focal point of the family.
          • Parents invest a lot of time into their child emotionally and economically.
          • Have high aspirations for their children.
      • The Conflict View
        • Inequalities among children.
          • Not all children share the same status or experiences.
          • Gender differences - boy are more likely to be able to go out alone before girls. Girls do more do
          • Ethnic Differences - Asian parents more likely to be strict.
          • Class Differences - Children of laborers more likely to suffer from hyperactivity.
            • poor mothers have low birth weight which leads to delayed physical and intellectual development.
        • Inequalities between children and adults.
          • Prevention from paid work - segregates them and makes them powerless.
          • View described as 'child liberationism'
          • Argued that it is protection.
        • Neglect and Abuse
          • In 2006 31,400 were on child protection registers.
          • ChildLine receives  over 20,000 calls a year from children saying they have been sexually or physically abused.
        • Control Over Children's Space and Time.
          • Shops display 'no school children ' signs.
          • Increasing close surveillance over children in public areas.
          • Fears about road safety and stranger danger has led to less independent travel.
          • In 1971 Hilman found that 80% of 7-8 yr olds were allowed to go to school with out supervision, this reduced to 9% in 1990s.
          • Adults control the daily routine of children.
          • Control how fast they grow up as they decide whether a child is 'too young' too participate in a task.
        • Control Over Children's Bodies
          • Control how they sit and walk. How they dress.
          • Control how they are touched, nurtured and disciplined.
          • Told how to touch their own bodies - don't pick your nose or touch genitals.
        • Control over access to resources.
          • Laws exclude them from part-time employment.
          • Child benefit goes to the parent not the child.
          • 'Pocket money' is restricted.
    • The Future of Childhood
      • The Disappearance of Childhood
        • The ability to read set apart child and adulthood.
          • Created an information hierarchy.
        • TV and Tech blurs this hierarchy given children access too information which equalizes their knowledge with adults.
      • A Separate Childhood Culture
        • Lona Opie argues childhood is not disappearing but forming a separate culture.
        • Create their own games and culture.
      • Globalization of Western Childhood
        • Being exported and imposed on the rest of the world.
        • A separate life stage based in the nuclear family and school in which children are innocent, dependent and have no economic role.
      • Reconstruction of Childhood
        • Sue Palmer calls 'toxic childhood - technological and cultural changes have damaged intellectual and emotional development.
        • UK youth are at the top of the league tables in obesity, self harm, drug and alcohol abuse, violence and teenage pregnancies.
        • Growing similarities with adults leisure activities, fashion and diet.
    • Childhood as a Social Construct
      • Modern Western Childhood
        • There is a vast contrast between adults and children.
          • Regarded as physically and emotionally immature and not competent enough to run their lives.
          • Laws regulate what children are allowed, required and restricted to do.
          • Their difference is also highlighted with entertainment, clothing and toys.
        • Childhood is often referred to a golden age of happiness and innocence.
          • However means they are labelled as vulnerable.
          • In need of protection and should be quarantined from 'the real world'.
          • In a sphere of family, entertainment and education - live lives of pleasure.
      • Cross-Cultural Differences
        • In poor countries children are found to work from a young age.
          • Samantha Punch: Found that in rural Bolivia children are expected to work by the age of 5.
          • Lowell Holmes found that 'too young' was never an excuse not to partake in a task.
        • Less value is placed on obedience among the Tikopia of western pacific.
        • Sexual activities were tolerated and amused interest in West Pacific Islands.
      • Historical Differences
        • It is argued that 'childhood did not exist' in the middle ages.
          • Once they passed the stage of physical dependency they were treated as adults.
        • Artwork from the period shows little distinction between children and adults.
      • Reasons For Change
        • Laws restricting child labour.
        • Compulsory schooling.
        • Child protection and welfare legislation. E.g. Prevention of Cruelty to Children act.
        • The growth in the idea of children's rights.
        • Declining family size and lower IMR.
        • Increased knowledge in children's health and development.



cheers son

brid devlin

great overview of topic - good for visual learners

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