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  • Childhood
    • Dominant Framework Michael Wyness
      • Children are not seen in their own rights, but in terms of what they will become later
        • Future Adults
      • Childhood is the earliest and or most primitive stage of individuality
    • Social Construction
      • Childhood is not a natural biological stage
        • But a social role which is learnt through socialisation
          • It varies from society to society and over time
            • Some children do considerable amount of paid work
            • Amnesty International (2007) estimates there are 300,000 child soldiers in the world
            • Some cultural variations may differ I.e. in Tikopia in the Pacific, children are not expected to obey adults
    • The Emergence of childhood
      • Treated differently according to chronological age
      • Seen as important and in need of protection
      • Strongly mourned if they died
      • Not required to work
      • Given distinctive clothes
      • Given specialist games and toys which adults would not take part in
      • Seen as Asexual and kept away from exposure to sexuality
    • Why did attitudes start to change by 18th century? (Edward Shorter)
      • The idea of romantic love began to develop and children were seen as the product of a special relationship
      • Philosophers such as Jean Jacques popularized the idea that children were born good and could become reasoning adults if successfully  socialized
      • New ideas began to circulate on the best ways to raise children
    • Neil postman
      • Explanation of change lying in the technological age
      • Idea that the seperation of adults and children because of the thought that children had to pass through age-related stages as they progress to adulthood
      • Weighs too much to a single cause
        • Jane Pilcher (1995) sees employment legislation as important
          • Banned an increasing number of children from workplaces
            • Led to separation between children and adults
    • Parenting culture is failing children?
      • Liberal ideas of parenting have given children too many rights and powers
        • Prevented parents from disciplining their children (e.g through smacking)
          • Less socialization to respect authority
      • Peer Groups and the mass media have come to have more influence on children than their parents and teachers
        • Leading to children losing their innocence and becoming sexualised at a younger age
          • Increase of pregnancies under 16


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