Childhood

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  • Childhood Key Theorists
    • Aries
      • Childhood is socially constructed and a recent invention.
        • Middle ages
          • Childhood didn't exist. Regarded as little adults.
            • work with adults
            • Dress like adults
            • Behave like adults
        • 16th - 18th century
          • Industrial revolution
            • Child labour widespread
          • Middle class
            • Rich parents
              • Kids sent to schools to be educated
              • Education introduced
                • Kids sent to schools to be educated
      • short life expectancy    - difficult to invest emotion
      • children in the past seen as mini adults
      • They were an economic asset - help economy with money
      • 19th Century
        • factory act banned child employment
          • mines
            • End of century: education = compulsory
              • Factories
          • Factories
      • 20th - 21st Century
        • Separate degrees of childhood
          • Teens
            • Experts in children e.g Psychologists
          • Tweenagers
            • Experts in children e.g Psychologists
        • The century of the child.
          • children have become and economic liability.
            • lost their independence
    • Cross culture
      • Punch
        • Somoan village:  too young is not a reason. if a child thinks they can do it they will
      • Holmes
        • Rural Bolivia: kids work age 5
      • Firth
        • Tikopia: do what your told is a grant given by a child not expected from an adult
    • March of progress
      • Position of children in western societies has improved.
        • childhood is a special time
          • children are different from adults
    • Seperateness
      • Pilcher
        • childhood = clean and distinct life stage
          • Golden age
          • should have a separate status from adults
            • clothes
            • toys
            • language
    • British kids said to be the most unhappy in the West
      • Womack
        • Family breakdown
          • causes childhood angst.
          • 1/3 kids live away from biological parents
        • increase in obesity,
        • substance abuse
        • anti social behaviour
        • Gittens
          • Age patriarchy
            • Children pushed down by adults and oppressed
    • wicked and sinful kids.
      • Stainton-rodgers
        • innocent and wholesome child
          • welfare view: protected from harm, food, clothing, shelter
        • wicked and sinful child
          • Control view: laws and restrictions, stranger danger, road safety.
            • welfare view: protected from harm, food, clothing, shelter
    • Child centred families in the 19th century made the american family a success = progression
      • Berger and Berger
        • Gender
          • Girls get less freedom than boys
          • Girls get more time with parents than boys do
          • girls do more domestic labour
        • Class
          • high class children have more opportunities
          • middle class have more time for their kids than working class
          • poorer kids have more time with friends and tv than richer kids do
        • Ethnicity
          • Chinese parents are stricter on education
          • asian parents are more likely to be stricter on their daughters
    • Blurred lines due to lack of stability in adults
      • Lee
        • Social construction of childhood is changing
          • childhood used to be seen as unstable now adults are more unstable
            • higher divorce rates
            • jobs
            • debts
    • Mass media spoiling childhood
      • Postman
        • only exist when kids can be separated and protected from adult world
        • media = no more secrets. kids exposed to more e.g sex, drugs, crime .
          • childhood disappearing
    • childhood exists as they have their own games and rhymes.
      • opie
    • Bacock
      • children are important consumers
        • influencing the capitalist products.
          • products aimed towards kids
            • economic contributors
    • Palmer
      • Toxic childhood
        • media and modern technology has impacted on children leading to toxic childhood syndrome
    • Melanie phillips
      • kids have too many rights
        • Peers more important than parents
          • Innocence of childhood has gone
        • Innocence of childhood has gone
      • culture of parenting broken down

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