Chemistry C1

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  • Chemistry C1 (Air Quality)
    • The Early Atmosphere
      • Volcanoes Phase 1
        • Gave out lots of gases including CO2, Nitrogen and Water Vapour.
        • First 2 billion years.
        • Earth's surface was originally molten.
        • Oceans formed when the water vapour condensed.
          • CO2 dissolved into the oceans.
      • Green Plants Phase 2
        • The next 2 billion years.
        • Green plants removed CO2 from the air by photosynthesis.
        • A product of photosynthesis is Oxygen, which added to the Earth's atmosphere.
        • When plants died the carbon became 'locked up' in sedimentary rocks and fossils fuels, as insoluble carbonates.
      • Complex Organisms Evolved
        • The oxygen in the air killed of some organisms that couldn't tolerate it.
        • Other organisms evolved as some died.
        • No more CO2 in the atmosphere.
    • The Earth
      • The atmosphere of the Earth: 78% Nitrogen  21% Oxygen   1% Argon        Also a small amount of other gases e,g  CO2 (0.04%) and Water Vapour
    • Pollutants
      • Human activities (e.g driving, power stations, etc) produces a number of gases that are released to the atmosphere.
        • Carbon dioxide
          • Molecule CO2
          • Removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and dissolving into lakes.
          • It is put into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels, vehicle engines and many other human activities.
          • Adds to the greenhouse effect, which is warming up the Earth.
            • Causes problms like, rise in sea level, ice caps melting, floods, etc.
          • Particles
            • Tiny particles that are in the air
            • Carbon particles are produced when fuels burn incompletely.
              • They float around in the atmosphere (for some time).
              • After floating, they fall back to the ground and deposit themselves as soot, (often found on buildings).
        • Carbon Monoxide
          • Molecule CO
          • It is produced whne not enough oxygen burns with Carbon (incomplete burning)
          • It is a poisonous gas that can make people drowsy or even kill them if they inhale it.
        • Nitrogen Oxides
          • Nitrogen Monoxide
            • Molecule NO
            • When nitrogen is exposed to oxygen at high temperature, NO is made. This can happen when fuels burn in car engines.
          • Nitrogen Dioxide
            • Nitrogen Monoxide reacts with more oxygen in the air to make NO2.
            • Molecule NO2
            • Nitrogen Dioxide also reacts with moisture in clouds and makes dilute nitric acid (acid rain).
    • Fossil Fuels
      • Some Fossil Fuels are made from hydrocarbons.
        • Hydrocarbons only contain the elements hydrogen and carbon.
          • When hydrocarbons burn the products are CO2 and H2O
        • Most Fossil Fuels are from the remains of dead plants and animals from million years ago.
      • Coal is an example of a Fossil Fuel
        • It is made up of mainly carbon.
        • When burned, it produces CO2 (combustion).


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