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  • 1.1-Atoms
    • Chemistry-C1
      • 1.2-Chemical equations
        • No atoms are ever created or destroyed in a chemical reaction
        • total mass of reactants = total mass of products
        • Law of conservation of mass- no atoms are lost or made during the reaction.
      • 1.3-Separating mixtures
        • A mixture is made up of 2 or more substances that are not chemically combined together.
        • Filtration-separates substances insoluble in a solvent from those that are soluble in the solvent
          • e.g. sand can be separated from salt solution using filtration
        • Crystallisation-separates a soluble solid from a solvent.
          • e.g. salt (sodium chloride) from salt solution.
        • Distillation-Separates a solvent from soluble solids dissolved in the solvent.
          • e.g. sea water is distilled to obtain useable water.
      • 1.4-Fractional Distillation and paper chromatography
        • Fractional Distillation- A way to separate mixtures o miscible liquids.
          • e.g. ethanol and water
        • Paper chromatography- way to separate substances from mixtures in solution.
        • The liquids have different boiling points but the liquid with the lowest boiling point is collected first.
          • Add a fractionating column to aid the separation
      • 1.5-History of the atom
        • Thomson discovered a tiny - charged particle is a electron
          • He proposed the plum pudding model for the atom.
            • The model suggested negative electrons were embedded in a ball of positive charge.
        • Alpha particles were repelled showing that there is a tiny spot of + charge in the centre of the atom
        • Chadwick showed hat there were neutrons in the nucleus
      • 1.6-Structure of the atom
        • The nucleus at the centre contains protons and neutrons
        • Electrons (negatively charged)- have no overall charge.
          • The no. of protons is equal to the no. of electrons, relative charges are equal.
        • Mass number- no. of protons and neutrons
      • 1.7-Ions,atoms and isotopes
        • Isotope- atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons
          • They have identical chemical properties but their physical properties such as density can differ.
        • If atoms lose electrons they form positive ions.
        • Atoms that gain electrons form negative ions.
      • 1.8-Elctronic structures
        • Electronic structure- shows the number of electrons in each energy level.
        • Elements in the same group f the pt have the same number of electrons in their outer shell
          • e.g. group 1 elements have 1 electron in their outer shell.
        • Elements in group 0 are called noble gases
          • They are unreactive
    • Compounds are formed when two or more elements combine together
    • All substances are made of atoms
    • When elements reacts, their atoms join with atoms of other elements


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