Changes In The Family


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  • Changes with the Family
    • Marriage
      • Reasons for the decrease in marriage
        • Changes in Women's positions
        • People are getting married later on in life
        • Secularisation
        • More accepting to different family types
        • Fear of divorce
        • Different types of marriages increasing
    • Divorce
      • Reasons for the increase in divorce(non theoretical)
        • Changes in Law
          • laws made it easier but undermined the way of living in society
            • Alternatives to divorce
              • disertion-one partner leaves the other but the couple remain legally married
              • legal separation-court separates financial and legal affairs of couple but remain married
              • empty shell marriage-continue to live under the same roof but remain married in name only
        • Declining stigma and changing attitudes
          • Stigma-refers to the negative label, social disapproval or shame attached to a person, action or relationship
        • Secularisation
          • decline in the influence of religion, which is identified by the PM theory
        • Rising expectations of marriage
          • Fletcher-found that pressure to find 'Mr and Mrs Right' leads to more divorce
          • Feminism-believe pressure=oppression. Radical fem. would say to move towards political lesbianism
        • Women's increased financial independence
          • welfare system-welfare benefits mean they are no longer dependent
          • employment-most likely to be in paid work
          • girls get better grades-doing well in school is allowing them to get top jobs
          • laws and legislation-equal pay and anti discrimination have helped narrow pay gap
      • Reasons for increase in divorce(theoretical)
        • Feminism
          • Dual burden
          • Marriage remains patriarchal
            • Mochschild-women feel more valued at work
          • most women initiate divorce
            • Bernard-feel a growing dissatisfaction with patriarchal marriage
        • Post Modernism
          • individual thesis
            • Beck+Giddens-traditional norms lose their hold over individuals, so become free to pursue their own self interest
          • Pure relationship
          • Individualism
          • Self interests
    • Cohabitation
      • two people in an intimate relationship living in the same household but not married and no children
        • Reasons for the increase in cohabitation
          • relationships are more negotiable-equal dominance
            • Young and Wilmott-March of Progress
          • less stigma
            • Judith Stacey-family is diversed and fluid
          • women are no longer dependent
          • secularisation
          • lack of value of marriage
          • fear of divorce
          • unable to afford marriage
    • Childbearing
      • Reasons for the decline in childbearing
        • no longer a priority in stead career and education-Sue Sharpe
        • less stigma for not having children or having them later
        • birth control, more options e.g IVF, surrogates, freezing sex cells
        • secularisation
      • less stigman on out of marriage
    • Ethinic Differences in family patterns
      • Black Families
        • black Caribbean and African have higher proportion of lone parent households
        • high rate of female headed lone parent families
      • Asian Families
        • Bangladesh, Pakistani's and Indian households tend to be larger than other ethnic groups
    • Domestic Division of Labour
      • Anne Oakley-gender role socialisation
      • Rapoport and Rapoport(1970)-career women="wives and mothers"
      • David Morley-women see the home as a place of work, men a place of leisure
    • Domestic violence
      • Dobash and Dobash(Radical fems)
        • marriage legitimises violence against women
      • New Right
        • only occurs in dysfunctional family
        • rise in cohabitation and divorce leads to it
        • happens in lower class families
      • Anthony Giddens
        • caused by the emotional intensity i.e pressure to fulfil neeeds, and parental role
      • Richard Wilkinson
        • Result of stress caused by social inequality, worries about money, jobs, and housing

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