CGP GCSE Biology for AQA (Grade 9-1)---Topic 2-Organisation

This is a mind map on the second topic in the CGP GCSE Biology Revision Guide, excluding the required praticles (sorry)

It follows the AQA spec and is for the new 9-1 grade system.

Hope you enjoy and learn something!!

NOTE: Most definitions are in the Bottom Right Corner, along with the Equations.

Sorry if the equations are hard to understand, i did the best I could.

View mindmap
  • Organisation
    • Cell Organisation
      • Large Multi-celluar organisms are made up of organ systems
        • Similar cells group together to become tissues.
          • Examples include: Muscular tissue, Glandular tissue and Epithelial tissue.
          • Similar tissues group together to become organs
            • For example all three tissues (Muscular, Glandular and Epithelial) all work together in the stomach to churn the food, produe enzymes (more on that later) and covers the stomach to stop any harmfull chemicals from escaping.
            • Organs group together to make organ systems
              • Examples include: The Reproductive and Cardiovascular system
              • Organ systems group together to make an organism
                • Examples include: Humans, Dogs, Ants etc...
    • Enzymes
      • Chemical reactions make you work, and enzymes make chemical reactions work
        • Enzymes are Catalysts produced by living things
          • Catalsts are a substance which increases the speed of a reaction without being used up or changed in the reaction
          • Enzymes have special shapes so they can Catalyse reactions
            • Each type of enzyme has a different shape of active sight.
              • The active sight and substrait fit together in what is known as the Lock and Key method
            • However enzymes can only work in a certain pH or Temprature
              • For example: If an enzyme that works in the stomach, were to go to the small intestine.
                • The enzyme will 'Denature' as the temprature and pH is not at optimal conditions
    • Enzymes and Digestion
      • The enzymes used in digestion are produced by cells and then released into the gut to mix with food
        • Carbohydrases convert Carbohydrates into simple sugars
          • Amalyse is an example of carbohydrase. It breaks down starch
            • Amalyse is produced in the salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine
          • Proteases convert Proteans into Amino Acids
            • Proteases are made in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine
            • Lipses convert Lipids into Glycerol and fatty acids
              • They are made in the pancreas and small intestine
      • Bile is used to Neutralise stomach acid and Emulsifies fat
        • Bile is produced in the liver
    • The Lungs
      • You need to get oxygen into your bloodstream to supply your cells for respiration
        • Your body also needs to get carbon dioxide out of your blood
      • The lungs are in the Thorax
        • Aveoli carry out Gas exchange
          • Via the oxygen and carbon dioxide diffusing in and out of the Aveoli and Blood
    • Circulatory System
      • Heart
        • The heart is a double Circuatory System
          • The Right Ventircle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs
          • The Left Ventricle pumps oxyganated round the body
        • The heart contracts to pump blood around the body. It also has a natural pacemaker: a group of cells in the right atrium wall
        • The heart has 4 chambers: Left ventricle and atrium. Right ventricle and artium
      • Blood Vessels
        • There are 3 blood vessels: Arteries, Veins and Capillaries
          • Arteries carry blood away from the heart
            • They carry blood under pressure so the walls are thick, strong and elastic.
          • Capillaries
            • They are really small so they can get close enough to cells to exchange substances with them.
          • Veins take blood back to the heart
            • They have valves to prevent backflow.
      • Blood
        • Red blood cells carry oxygen. They also have a biconcave disc shape
          • They contain Haemoglobin, which oxygen bindes to to become Oxyhaemoglobin.
        • White blood cells defend our body from infection
        • Platelets help blood to clot
        • Plasma is the liquid that carries everything in the blood
    • Cardiovascular Disease
      • Coronary heart disease is an example. its when fatty deposits block the flow of blood in the coronary arteries.
        • Stents are one way of combatting it. Stents are wire meshes that are inserted into the arteries and push the fat to the side, allowing blood to flow
        • Statins are drugs that reduce the amout of bad cholesterol in the blood stream
    • Health and Disesase
      • Risk factors
        • Risk factors increase the chance of getting a diesase
          • Some risk factors can cause disease directly
            • For example, smoking leads directly to lung diseases
        • Risk factors can increase the chance of some cancers.
        • Can be associated with lifestyle and genetics
      • Cancer
        • Cancer occures when cells exceed their Hayflick limit, when it does the cell becomes cancerous
        • Risk factors can increase the chance of some cancers.
    • Plant Cell Organisation
      • Transpiration and Translocation
        • Translocation
          • There are 2 tubes that carry substances
            • Phloem transports food up and down
            • Xylem transports water up
        • Transpiration
          • Transpiration is the loss of water from the plant
            • Either by evaporation or other means
          • The rate is affected by: Light Intensity, Temprature, Air Flow, Humidity
      • Transpiration and Stomata
        • Transpiration
          • Transpiration is the loss of water from the plant
            • Either by evaporation or other means
          • The rate is affected by: Light Intensity, Temprature, Air Flow, Humidity
        • Guard cells are adapted to open and close stomota
          • When there is a lot of water the cells become turgid and the guard cells tell the stomota to open, when the plant is short of water, it goes flacid and the stomota close.


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