Cell differentiation

  • Created by: Laura
  • Created on: 01-05-14 11:34
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  • Cell differentiation and organisation
    • Cells are specialised to perform specific functions. Similar cells are then grouped together into tissues, tissues into organs and organs into systems
    • Cell Differentiation
      • Single-celled organisms perform all essential life functions. No one cell can provide the best conditions for all functions.
      • Each cell adapted to perform a particular role
      • All cells initially identical. Cell becomes specialised in structure to suit the role that it will carry out. This is known as cell differentiation.
      • Each cell contains all the genes needed for it to turn into any kind of cell but only a few of these genes are switched on.
      • Not just shape of differentiated cells that varies but also the number of organelles inside it
    • Tissues
      • For max efficiency cells are normally aggregated together. A collection of similar cells that perform a specific function is known as a tissue
      • Epithelial tissues, which are found in animals and consist of sheets of cells. They line the surfaces of organisms and often have a protective function.
      • Xylem which occurs in plants and is made up of a number of cell types. It is used to transport water and mineral ions throughout the plant and also gives mechanical support
    • Organs
      • Just as cells are aggregated into tissues, tissues are aggregated into organs
      • An organ is a combination of tissues that are coordinated to perform a variety of functions, although they often have one predominant major function
    • Organ systems
      • Organs work together as a single unit known as an organ system. These systems may be grouped together to perform particular functions more efficiently
      • Digestive system, digests and processes food. Made up of organs that include the salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, ileum, pancreas and liver
      • The respiratory system is used for breathing and gas exchange. It is made up if organs that include the trachea, bronchi and luncgs


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