Causes of World War One

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  • Created by: geeklea
  • Created on: 02-06-14 20:35
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  • Causes of World War One
    • Great Powers
      • Triple Alliance
        • 1879-DUAL ALLIANCE(DE + AU-HN)
        • 1882-IT joins DE + AU-HN and agrees to help one another in an attack
      • Triple Entente
        • 1894-FR + RU agree to protect each other against DE or AU-HN
        • 1902-JP + GB reach a naval agreement
        • 1904-ENTENTE CORDIALE (GB + FR) It was just a friendly agreement, not a defense promise
        • 1907- GB + RU reach reluctant agreement (triple entente) to stop DE, AU-HN + IT
        • RU and SRB already had an alliance, as well a GB and BE
    • Races
      • Naval Race
        • 1900- DE needed a navy to have an empire, so Admiral Tirpitz started DE Navy Law
        • GB + DE started building Dreadnoughts, the most advance warship in the world
        • 1906-1914- GB built 29 while DE built 17
        • 1909- GB planned to build 4 but public said "we want 8 and we won't wait"
        • DE put the ships in the North Sea, which was seen as a threat by GB
        • GB had ancient naval rule- must be 2+1 (3) times bigger than rival
      • Arms Race
        • From 1870-1914 there was 4x growth in defense spending of the Great Powers
        • 1914- DE had the largest army in the world, but RU was the fasting growing which worried DE
        • DE and RU introduced conscription, so they had a lot of trained reserves as well as soldiers
        • 1914- Great Powers all had huge armies, except from GB
    • Moroccan Crises
      • c
        • Kaiser paraded Tangier on white horse and announced he wanted to help MOR gain independance
        • This was a gesture aimed at FR from gaining MOR
        • 1906-He set up Algeçiras, Spain Conference. GB + RU supported FR, while AU-HN + MOR supported DE
        • FR + ESP had control of MOR police while DE got nothing
        • GB started having military talks with FR, so their alliance was strangthened
      • 1911
        • There were riots in Fez, so interested FR sent their army over, which angered the Kaiser
        • In response DE sent Black Panther ship to Agadir, claiming DE soldiers needed rescuing- there was only one DE soldier
        • This made GB angry because if DE got MOR they could block the Gibraltar Strait (Mediterranean + East Africa)
        • GB then promised to defend FR north coast + sent Dreadnought to MOR, so GB + FR united
        • FR took over MOR, but DE was compensated with 100,000 miles² of useless FR Congo
    • Bosnian Crisis
      • TR used to own Balkans, but they wanted independence so TR crumbled
      • BOS wanted to be under SRB's rule because of culture similarities
      • SRB wanted BOS and a coastline so looked to RU for support because they were scared of AU-HN
      • 1908- AU-HN got BOS even though SRB was in the way, but they were defeated
      • 1909-RU wanted access out of Black Sea so helped SRB but DE threatens them so RU backs out
    • Schlieffen Plan
      • PLAN- Quickly attack and defeat FR by going through BE, then RU
      • A big gamble because of assumption that FR would be easily defeated and RU would be slow with army
      • It fails- GB protected BE and RU builds army quicker
      • DE get 2 miles from Paris but GB pushes them back
    • Outbreak of war
      • 23 July- AU-HN blame SRB for assassination and send ultimatum
      • 28 July- AU-HN declare war on SRB and bomb capital (Belgrade)
      • 29 July- RU prepare to defend SRB against AU-HN but DE warns RU to stop
      • 1 August- DE declare war on RU and move army to FR + BE
      • 2 August- FR prepare war front for DE
      • 3 August- DE declare war on FR and invade BE. GB order DE to withdraw from BE
      • 3 August- DE declare war on FR and invade BE. GB order DE to withdraw from BE
      • 6 August- AU declare war on RU
    • Scramble for Africa
      • GB had some of the most valuble colonies
      • FR controlled most of NW with arguments over MOR and Tunis
      • DE joined the race later, so didn't have many valuable bits and so targeted Morocco
      • IT had valuable Lybia
      • DE was angry about the BE Congo
    • Kaiser Wilhelm II
      • King of DE at 27-grandson of Queen Victoria and cousins with Tsar Nicholas (RU) & King George (GB)
      • Born with withered left arm and partially deaf, so he was self-concious but also pushed very hard as a child
      • Weltpolitik-wanted a New Germany with a strong military, army and empire ("Germany must have it's place in the sun")
      • Made Otto von Bismarck retire when he wanted to continue alliance with Russia
      • GB was worried about WELTPOLITIK because they owned 1/5 of the world and didn't wanted powerful Germany
      • 1908- in an interview, he claimed DE disliked GB
    • Total War Blame
      • Russia
        • 'too slow' to react
        • encouraged SRB to fight AU-HN
        • joined Entente with GB & FR
        • refused to back down over SRB like BOS in 1908
        • involved in arms race & caused tension
      • Great Britain
        • didn't make position over BE clear enough
        • promise to protect BE was just cause
        • feared DE as competitor wanted to protect world position
        • helped create tension with DE with naval race & alliances
        • could have done more to restrain RU
      • Germany
        • 'hell bent' on world domination
        • encouraged AU-HN with "blank cheque" (guaranteed protection)
        • assassination gave time to put war plan into action
        • mobilising troops on 1 August meant no time fore compromise
        • war plan drawn up 10 years before
        • followed policy of Weltpolitik claiming world power
        • involved in arms race & caused tension
      • Austria-Hungary
        • thought going to war would bind groups in empire together
        • knew RU would be annoyed when gave SRB ultimatum
        • pushed RU into mobilisation by bombing SRB capital, Belgrade
        • responded to assassination by giving tough ultimatum, provoking RU
      • France
        • could have done more to restrain RU
        • afraid of DE mobilisation, so put pressure on RU mobilise fully
  • GB + DE started building Dreadnoughts, the most advance warship in the world

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